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CONTEXT The efficacy of counseling to prevent infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has not been definitively shown. OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of 2 interactive HIV/STD counseling interventions with didactic prevention messages typical of current practice. DESIGN Multicenter randomized(More)
OBJECTIVE To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of reported estimates of adverse pregnancy outcomes among untreated women with syphilis and women without syphilis. METHODS PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Libraries were searched for literature assessing adverse pregnancy outcomes among untreated women with seroreactivity for Treponema pallidum(More)
July 2007 | Volume 4 | Issue 7 | e223 Three randomized, controlled clinical trials in South Africa, Kenya, and Uganda were recently unblinded early because interim analyses concluded that circumcision of HIV-negative adult males reduced their risk for acquiring HIV infection through penile–vaginal sex [1–3]. In each trial, men who had been randomly assigned(More)
BACKGROUND Globally syphilis is an important yet preventable cause of stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVES This review sought to estimate the effect of detection and treatment of active syphilis in pregnancy with at least 2.4 MU benzathine penicillin (or equivalent) on syphilis-related stillbirths and neonatal mortality. METHODS We(More)
In April 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) held a two-day consultation with a broad spectrum of stakeholders to obtain input on the potential role of male circumcision (MC) in preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the U.S. Working groups summarized data and discussed issues about the use of MC for(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization initiative to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of syphilis aims for ≥ 90% of pregnant women to be tested for syphilis and ≥ 90% to receive treatment by 2015. We calculated global and regional estimates of syphilis in pregnancy and associated adverse outcomes for 2008, as well as antenatal care (ANC) coverage(More)
BACKGROUND Many studies measure sex behavior to determine the efficacy of sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV prevention interventions. GOAL To determine how well measured behavior reflects STD incidence. STUDY DESIGN Data from a trial (Project RESPECT) were analyzed to compare behavior and incidence of STD (gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, HIV)(More)
BACKGROUND Male circumcision status has been shown to be associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition in some, but not all, studies. Most studies have been cross sectional. OBJECTIVES We examined the association between circumcision status and the prevalence and incidence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and syphilis. METHODS We analysed(More)
AIM To assess the effectiveness of a sexual risk reduction intervention in the Russian narcology hospital setting. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS This was a randomized controlled trial from October 2004 to December 2005 among patients with alcohol and/or heroin dependence from two narcology hospitals in St Petersburg, Russia. INTERVENTION Intervention(More)
The seroincidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was determined among 1766 patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and enrolled in a randomized, controlled trial of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/STD risk-reduction counseling (RRC). Arm 1 received enhanced RRC (4 sessions); arm 2, brief RRC (2 sessions); and arm(More)