Mary Kathryn Cowles

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Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, including the Gibbs sampler and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, are very commonly used in Bayesian statistics for sampling from complicated, high-dimensional posterior distributions. A continuing source of uncertainty is how long such a sampler must be run in order to converge approximately to its target(More)
Poor adherence to medication regimens is a well-documented phenomenon in clinical practice and an ever-present concern in clinical trials. Little is known about adherence to inhaled medication regimens over extended periods. The present paper describes the 2-yr results of the Lung Health Study (LHS) program, which was developed to maintain long-term(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in the constitutive properties of the cardiac muscle cell play a causative role in the development of diastolic dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS Cardiocytes from normal and pressure-hypertrophied cats were embedded in an agarose gel, placed on a stretching device, and subjected to a(More)
This meta-analysis of 5 large studies of the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group was undertaken to evaluate the predictive value of antiretroviral treatment-mediated changes in 3 markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 disease progression-HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 cell count, and CD4 percentage-for weight growth failure, cognitive decline, and(More)
When MCMC methods for Bayesian spatiotemporal modeling are applied to large geostatistical problems, challenges arise as a consequence of memory requirements, computing costs, and convergence monitoring. This article describes the parallelization of a reparametrized and marginalized posterior sampling (RAMPS) algorithm, which is carefully designed to(More)
To gain insight into the protective effects of the three components of the zidovudine regimen used in AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) 076 on mother-to-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1, 188 zidovudine-treated women and their untreated infants from five HIV-1 obstetric centers were retrospectively studied. The overall rate of(More)
Spatial data, either areal or geostatistical (point-referenced), are becoming increasingly utilized in the study of many scientific fields due to the accessibility of data monitoring systems and associated datasets. When both types of data are available for the same underlying spatial process, computationally efficient and statistically sound methods are(More)
Surrogate endpoints in clinical trials are biological markers or events observable earlier than the clinical endpoints (such as death) that are actually of primary interest. The "proportion of treatment effect captured" by a surrogate endpoint (PTE) is a frequentist measure intended to address the question of whether trials based on a surrogate endpoint(More)