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Th17 cells are a distinct lineage of effector CD4(+) T cells characterized by their production of interleukin (IL)-17. We demonstrate that Th17 cells also expressed IL-22, an IL-10 family member, at substantially higher amounts than T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cells. Similar to IL-17A, IL-22 expression was initiated by transforming growth factor beta signaling in(More)
PD-1 is an immunoinhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells. Mice deficient in PD-1 exhibit a breakdown of peripheral tolerance and demonstrate multiple autoimmune features. We report here that the ligand of PD-1 (PD-L1) is a member of the B7 gene family. Engagement of PD-1 by PD-L1 leads to the inhibition of T cell(More)
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease (CMCD) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nails, and oral and genital mucosae caused by Candida albicans and, to a lesser extent, Staphylococcus aureus, in patients with no other infectious or autoimmune manifestations. We report two genetic etiologies of CMCD: autosomal recessive(More)
IL-17A and IL-17F are related homodimeric proteins of the IL-17 family produced by Th17 cells. In this study, we show that mouse Th17 cells also produce an IL-17F/A heterodimeric protein. Whereas naive CD4(+) T cells differentiating toward the Th17 cell lineage expressed IL-17F/A in higher amounts than IL-17A/A homodimer and in lower amounts than IL-17F/F(More)
T cell activation is dependent upon signals delivered through the antigen-specific T cell receptor and accessory receptors on the T cell. A primary costimulatory signal is delivered through the CD28 receptor after engagement of its ligands, B7-1 (CD80) or B7-2 (CD86). Engagement of CTLA-4 (CD152) by the same B7-1 or B7-2 ligands results in attenuation of T(More)
CD4(+)CD25(+) immunoregulatory T cells represent a unique lineage of thymic-derived cells that potently suppress both in vitro and in vivo effector T cell function. We analyzed CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells by DNA microarray, identifying 29 genes differentially expressed in the resting subpopulations, and 77 that were differentially expressed(More)
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease resulting from the dysregulated interplay between keratinocytes and infiltrating immune cells. We report on a psoriasis-like disease model, which is induced by the transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(hi)CD25(-) cells to pathogen-free scid/scid mice. Psoriasis-like lesions had elevated levels of antimicrobial peptide and(More)
Novel retroviral protein expression constructs were designed to retain minimal retroviral sequences and to express dominant selectable markers by reinitiation of translation after expression of the viral genes. HT1080 cells were selected as producer cells for their ability to release high-titer viruses that are resistant to inactivation by human serum. Two(More)
Nonactivated CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells constitutively express glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related receptor (GITR), a TNFR family member whose engagement was presumed to abrogate regulatory T cell-mediated suppression. Using GITR-/- mice, we report that GITR engagement on CD25-, not CD25+ T cells abrogates T cell-mediated suppression. Mouse APCs(More)
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing receptor expressed upon T cell activation. PD-1(-/-) animals develop autoimmune diseases, suggesting an inhibitory role for PD-1 in immune responses. Members of the B7 family, PD-L1 and PD-L2, are ligands for PD-1. This study examines the functional consequences(More)