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BACKGROUND Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), especially multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid) disease, is associated with a worse patient outcome. Drug resistance diagnosed using microbiological culture takes days to weeks, as TB bacteria grow slowly. Rapid molecular tests for drug resistance detection (1 day) are commercially(More)
cia M, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis in a New York foxhound kennel. of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer in clinical samples of Leishmania don-ovani spotted on fi lter paper as revealed by single-strand conformation polymor-phisms and sequencing. S. Climate change and risk of leishmani-asis in North America: predictions from ecological niche models of(More)
The success of mosquito-based malaria control is dependent upon susceptible bionomic traits in local malaria vectors. It is crucial to have accurate and reliable methods to determine mosquito species composition in areas subject to malaria. An unexpectedly diverse set of Anopheles species was collected in the western Kenyan highlands, including unidentified(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the Handicapped Labio-Lingual Deviation index with California modifications, HLD (CalMod), in identifying handicapping malocclusions. METHODS A set of 153 study casts representing all types of malocclusion was utilized in this study. Models were randomly chosen the UCSF Division of(More)
OBJECTIVE Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis, with appropriate counseling, enables carrier parents to be informed early about future reproductive choices. Previous studies have assessed attitudes toward reproductive decisions in a hypothetical pregnancy or have measured reproductive behaviors. We aimed to measure parent attitudes to reproductive(More)
BACKGROUND Infectious diseases account for 15 million deaths per year worldwide, and disproportionately affect young people, elderly people, and the poorest sections of society. We aimed to describe the investments awarded to UK institutions for infectious disease research. METHODS We systematically searched databases and websites for information on(More)
Models of Plasmodium falciparum malaria epidemiology that provide realistic quantitative predictions of likely epidemiological outcomes of existing vector control strategies have the potential to assist in planning for the control and elimination of malaria. This work investigates the applicability of mathematical modelling of malaria transmission dynamics(More)
To the Editor: Widespread outbreaks of influenza A (H5N1) in poultry and severe infections in humans have raised the possibility of an influenza pandemic. The 3 influenza A pandemics of the 20th century (1) were associated with considerable socioeconomic disruption as well as many deaths and pressure on health services. Experiences in the United States(More)
The human population in the highlands of Nyanza Province, western Kenya, is subject to sporadic epidemics of Plasmodium falciparum. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) are used widely in this area. These interventions are most effective when Anopheles rest and feed indoors and when biting occurs at times when(More)
OBJECTIVES Respiratory infections are responsible for a large global burden of disease. We assessed the public and philanthropic investments awarded to UK institutions for respiratory infectious disease research to identify areas of underinvestment. We aimed to identify projects and categorise them by pathogen, disease and position along the research and(More)