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IP10 and MIG are two members of the CXC branch of the chemokine superfamily whose expression is dramatically up-regulated by interferon (IFN)-gamma. The proteins act largely on natural killer (NK)-cells and activated T-cells and have been implicated in mediating some of the effects of IFN-gamma and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), as well as T-cell-dependent(More)
FK-506 inhibits Ca(2+)-dependent transcription of lymphokine genes in T cells, and thereby acts as a powerful immunosuppressant. However, its potential therapeutic applications may be seriously limited by several side effects, including nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. At present, it is unclear whether these immunosuppressive and toxic effects result from(More)
A novel macrolide antibiotic, FK-506, isolated from Streptomyces tsukubaensis, has been shown to be a potent immunosuppressive agent in vivo and in vitro. FK-506 shares a number of immunosuppressive properties with the cyclic peptide, cyclosporin A (CsA), although 10 to 100 times more potent in this regard. These similarities suggest that both agents may(More)
FK-506 and the structurally related macrolide rapamycin (RAP) were investigated in comparison with cyclosporin A (CsA) for their immunosuppressive effects on murine T cells. All three agents suppressed the proliferation of splenic T cells triggered by lectins or antibodies to CD3 and Ly-6C. FK-506 or CsA also inhibited proliferation, IL-2 production, and(More)
The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 act synergistically with CD4 in an ordered multistep mechanism to allow the binding and entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The efficiency of such a coordinated mechanism depends on the spatial distribution of the participating molecules on the cell surface. Immunoelectron microscopy was performed to(More)
Interleukin 1 (IL 1) was shown to enhance in vivo secondary antibody responses of mice to a protein antigen. The activity was found to be dose and time dependent. The maximum enhancing effect was obtained with 2000 LAF units of IL 1 given 2 hr after the priming dose of antigen. The observation is consistent with the in vitro immunoenhancing activities of IL(More)
ShK, a peptide isolated from Stichodactyla helianthus venom, blocks the voltage-gated potassium channels, K(v)1.1 and K(v)1.3, with similar high affinity. ShK-Dap(22), a synthetic derivative in which a diaminopropionic acid residue has been substituted at position Lys(22), has been reported to be a selective K(v)1.3 inhibitor and to block this channel with(More)
BACKGROUND Tacrolimus (FK506) has potent immunosuppressive properties reflecting its ability to block the transcription of lymphokine genes in activated T cells through formation of a complex with FK506 binding protein-12, which inhibits the phosphatase activity of calcineurin. The clinical usefulness of tacrolimus is limited, however, by severe adverse(More)
The supernatants of human monocytes incubated with endotoxin are able to stimulate the proliferation of murine thymocytes in the presence of PHA. This is known as LAF (lymphocyte activating factor) activity and is a characteristic activity of interleukin 1 (IL 1). The LAF activity can be resolved into four major fractions: a 15,000 dalton (pI 7), a 15,000(More)
Productive T cell activation leading to cytokine secretion requires the cooperation of multiple signaling pathways coupled to the TCR and to costimulatory molecules such as CD28. Here, we utilized two pharmacophores, PD98059 and FK506, that inhibit, respectively, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase 1 (MEK 1) and calcineurin, to determine the(More)