Mary Jane Potash

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Human astrocytes can be infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in vitro and in vivo, but, in contrast to T lymphocytes and macrophages, virus expression is inefficient. To investigate the HIV-1 life cycle in human fetal astrocytes, we infected cells with HIV-1 pseudotyped with envelope glycoproteins of either amphotropic murine leukemia(More)
We created a model of HIV-1 infection of conventional mice for investigation of viral replication, control, and pathogenesis. To target HIV-1 to mice, the coding region of gp120 in HIV-1/NL4-3 was replaced with that of gp80 from ecotropic murine leukemia virus, a retrovirus that infects only rodents. The resulting chimeric virus construct, EcoHIV,(More)
HIV-1 infects human astrocytes in vitro and in vivo but the frequency of infected cells is low and its biological significance is unknown. In studies in vitro, recombinant gp120 alone can induce profound effects on astrocyte biology, suggesting that HIV-1 interaction with astrocytes and its functional consequences extend beyond the limited levels of(More)
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced morbidity and mortality in HIV-1 infection; however HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist despite treatment. The reasons for the limited efficacy of ART in the brain are unknown. Here we used functional genomics to determine ART effectiveness in the brain and to identify molecular signatures of(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLR) represent the best characterized receptor family transducing innate immune responses, the first line of defense against microbial invaders. This study was designed to investigate whether responses through TLR inhibit HIV-1 replication in its primary target cells. Primary human macrophages and lymphocytes from several different(More)
From an IgM secreting hybridoma line we have isolated 16 spontaneous mutants that produce truncated IgM polypeptides. The size of the mu-mRNAs produced by these mutants is normal, but they express 3- to 100-fold less mu-mRNA and mutant mu-protein than the parental cell line. Nucleotide sequence analysis of cloned mu-genes and/or their mRNAs show frameshift(More)
The pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia is mediated by neuronal dysfunction and death, brought about by the action of soluble neurotoxic factors that are released by virally infected macrophages and microglia. Paradoxically, many candidate HIV-1 neurotoxins also possess the ability to activate nuclear factor-kappa(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) interacts with its target cells through CD4 and a coreceptor, generally CCR5 or CXCR4. Macrophages display CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 that are competent for binding and entry of virus. Virus binding also induces several responses by lymphocytes and macrophages that can be dissociated from productive infection. We(More)
Heterosexual transmission accounts for the majority of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases worldwide. The current approach to investigate HIV heterosexual transmission in animals involves application of virus stock to the vaginal surface, a method that does not reproduce the physiological conditions of vaginal intercourse that influence the rate of(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) trans-activator Tat is an attractive target for the development of antiviral drugs because inhibition of Tat would arrest the virus at an early stage. The drug Ro 5-3335 [7-chloro-5-(2-pyrryl)-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2(H)-one], inhibited gene expression by HIV-1 at the level of transcriptional trans-activation by(More)