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Quantification of cardiac chamber size, ventricular mass and function ranks among the most clinically important and most frequently requested tasks of echocardiography. Over the last decades, echocardiographic methods and techniques have improved and expanded dramatically, due to the introduction of higher frequency transducers, harmonic imaging, fully(More)
Two-dimensional echocardiography is increasingly used to measure aortic root dimensions, which provide prognostic information in aortic regurgitation and the Marfan syndrome. Aortic root dilatation is currently detected by nomograms based on M-mode echocardiographic data. Aortic root diameters measured by 2-dimensional echocardiography at the anulus,(More)
OBJECTIVES This study was designed to determine the most appropriate method to normalize left ventricular mass for body size. BACKGROUND Left ventricular mass has been normalized for body weight, surface area or height in experimental and clinical studies, but it is uncertain which of these approaches is most appropriate. METHODS Three normotensive(More)
The spectrum of left ventricular geometric adaptation to hypertension was investigated in 165 patients with untreated essential hypertension and 125 age- and gender-matched normal adults studied by two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography. Among hypertensive patients, left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness were normal in 52%, whereas 13%(More)
BACKGROUND Although systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with premature myocardial infarction, the prevalence of underlying atherosclerosis and its relation to traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and lupus-related factors have not been examined in a case-control study. METHODS In 197 patients with lupus and 197 matched controls, we(More)
Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms are rare cardiac anomalies which may be acquired or congenital, most commonly involving the right or noncoronary sinuses. The congenital aneurysms are more common and often caused by weakness at the junction of the aortic media and the annulus fibrosus. Acquired aneurysms are caused by conditions affecting the aortic wall, such(More)
Brachial blood pressure is predictive of cardiovascular outcome; however central pressure may better represent the load imposed on the coronary and cerebral arteries and thereby bear a stronger relationship to vascular damage and prognosis. Relations of brachial and central pressures to carotid artery hypertrophy (intimal-medial thickness and vascular(More)
BACKGROUND Relations between organs and body size are not linear but rather follow allometric (growth) relations characterized by their powers (exponents). METHODS AND RESULTS Stroke volume (SV) by M-mode echocardiography was related to height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and ideal BSA (derived from ideal body weight for given height) in 970(More)
Profiles of verbal learning and memory performance were compared for typically developing children and for four developmental disorders characterized by different patterns of language functioning: specific language impairment, early focal brain damage, Williams Syndrome, and Down Syndrome. A list-learning task was used that allowed a detailed examination of(More)