Mary J Renfrew

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BACKGROUND There is extensive evidence of the benefits of breastfeeding for infants and mothers. In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended infants be fed exclusively on breast milk until six months of age. However, breastfeeding rates in many developed countries continue to be resistant to change. OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness of(More)
BACKGROUND There is extensive evidence of important health risks for infants and mothers related to not breastfeeding. In 2003, the World Health Organization recommended that infants be breastfed exclusively until six months of age, with breastfeeding continuing as an important part of the infant's diet until at least two years of age. However, current(More)
In this first paper in a series of four papers on midwifery, we aimed to examine, comprehensively and systematically, the contribution midwifery can make to the quality of care of women and infants globally, and the role of midwives and others in providing midwifery care. Drawing on international definitions and current practice, we mapped the scope of(More)
BACKGROUND The Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn, and Child Survival initiative monitors coverage of priority interventions to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) for reduction of maternal and child mortality. We aimed to report on 68 countries which have 97% of maternal and child deaths worldwide, and on 22 interventions that have been(More)
Although the benefits of breastfeeding are widely accepted, the effectiveness of different strategies to promote the continuation of breastfeeding once initiated are less clear. The objective of this systematic review was to describe studies comparing standard care with the provision of extra breastfeeding support and to measure its effectiveness. Outcome(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions that promote or inhibit breastfeeding or feeding with breastmilk for infants admitted to neonatal units, and to identify an agenda for future research. DATA SOURCES Electronic databases were searched (including MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process Citations, EMBASE, CINAHL,(More)
OBJECTIVES To consider how 'continuity of carer' has been defined in the literature and to review the literature on what aspects of continuity matter to women. DESIGN Structured literature review. SETTING The first objective was addressed within the context of a review of the organisation of midwifery services in the UK; for the second objective a wider(More)
RATIONALE Studies suggest that increased breastfeeding rates can provide substantial financial savings, but the scale of such savings in the UK is not known. OBJECTIVE To calculate potential cost savings attributable to increases in breastfeeding rates from the National Health Service perspective. DESIGN AND SETTINGS Cost savings focussed on where(More)
BACKGROUND Human breastmilk provides complete nutrition for infants and helps protect against certain childhood diseases. Despite this, rates of initiation of breastfeeding in the UK remain low relative to other countries. In 'Our healthier nation' action report, the government has highlighted the promotion of breastfeeding in order to assist improvements(More)