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Embryonic blackbirds(Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) obtain most of their calcium from the eggshell (85 90%), but all of their phosphorus comes from reserves in the yolk (80–85%) and albumen (15–20%). Approximately equal amounts of magnesium are supplied by the eggshell, the yolk, and the albumen. Yolk is depleted of magnesium and phosphorus during(More)
Hatchlings of the North American painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) spend their first winter of life inside a shallow, subterranean hibernaculum (the natal nest) where they may be exposed for extended periods to ice and cold. Hatchlings seemingly survive exposure to such conditions by becoming supercooled (i.e., by remaining unfrozen at temperatures below the(More)
Hatchling painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) survived freezing at -2 degrees C for 4 d, few recovered from freezing lasting 6 d, and none survived being frozen for 8 d. Whole-body glucose and lactate were low in animals that had not been subjected to cold and ice but increased precipitously in animals that were frozen for 2 d. Both metabolites continued to(More)
Embryos of the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus coqui take up small quantities of yolk and yolk mineral early in incubation but increase their uptake of yolk reserves at later stages of development. Growth and accumulation of calcium and magnesium by embryos also occur slowly at first and at a higher rate later. Accumulation of calcium and magnesium(More)
Total calcium in embryos of an oviparous, colubrid snake (Coluber constrictor L.) rises rapidly during the last half of incubation as the embryos increase in size. Although most of this calcium is drawn from stores in the yolk, hatchlings contain more calcium than was present in yolk of eggs at oviposition. Because shells from eggs incubated to hatching(More)
Hatchling painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) typically spend their first winter of life in a shallow, subterranean hibernaculum (the natal nest), where they may be exposed for extended periods to ice and cold. The key to their survival seems to be to avoid freezing and to sustain a state of supercooling. As temperature declines below 0 degrees C, however,(More)
We performed two experiments to determine (1) whether the metabolism and growth of embryonic snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) incubating in wet and dry environments are correlated inversely with the concentration of urea inside their eggs, and (2) whether urea accumulating inside eggs might be the cause of reductions in metabolism and growth by(More)
Flexible-shelled eggs of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) have conductances to water vapor that are 55 times higher than predicted for avian eggs of similar size, whereas rigid-shelled eggs of softshell turtles (Trionyx spiniferus) and American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) have conductances that are only five times higher than expected for(More)
Hatchlings of the North American painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) typically spend their first winter of life inside the shallow, subterranean nest where they completed incubation the preceding summer. This facet of their natural history commonly causes neonates in northerly populations to be exposed in mid-winter to ice and cold, which many animals survive(More)
Numerous vesicles were observed among the microtubules of the "preprophase" band in prophase cells from root tips of Allium cepa. The content of these vesicles looks similar to the matrix of adjacent cell walls, and these vesicles often appear to be involved in exocytosis. In addition, the cell walls perpendicular to the plane of (beneath) the preprophase(More)