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Disruption of the alveolar septal barrier leads to acute lung injury, patchy alveolar flooding, and hypoxemia. Although calcium entry into endothelial cells is critical for loss of barrier integrity, the cation channels involved in this process have not been identified. We hypothesized that activation of the vanilloid transient receptor potential channel(More)
Pulmonary edema resulting from high pulmonary venous pressure (PVP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF) patients, but current treatment options demonstrate substantial limitations. Recent evidence from rodent lungs suggests that PVP-induced edema is driven by activation of pulmonary capillary endothelial transient receptor(More)
The pulmonary vasculature comprises three anatomic compartments connected in series: the arterial tree, an extensive capillary bed, and the venular tree. Although, in general, this vasculature is thin-walled, structure is nonetheless complex. Contributions to structure (and thus potentially to function) from cells other than endothelial and smooth muscle(More)
The pressure threshold for injury of pulmonary capillaries is approximately 50 to 55 cm H2O in the canine lung, as measured by changes in the filtration coefficient (Kf,c). Since the pulmonary endothelial basement membrane has been observed to thicken in patients with heart failure and pulmonary venous hypertension, we hypothesized that both baseline(More)
The effect of peak airway pressure (Paw) on vascular permeability and the "safety factor" against edema formation was determined in isolated blood-perfused lower lobes of dog lungs. Microvascular permeability was evaluated using the measured filtration coefficient (Kf,C), isogravimetric capillary pressure (Pc,i), and critical capillary pressure (Pcrit) for(More)
Previous studies indicate that vascular permeability is increased in skeletal muscle subjected to 4 hours of inflow occlusion. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the increase in permeability are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the role of oxygen-derived free radicals and histamine as putative mediators of the increased permeability in(More)
Lung injury is a broad descriptor that can be applied to conditions ranging from mild interstitial edema without cellular injury to massive and fatal destruction of the lung. This review addresses those methods that can be readily applied to rats and mice whose small size limits the techniques that can be practically used to assess injury. The methodologies(More)
We have previously implicated calcium entry through stretch-activated cation channels in initiating the acute pulmonary vascular permeability increase in response to high peak inflation pressure (PIP) ventilation. However, the molecular identity of the channel is not known. We hypothesized that the transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) channel(More)
We have previously implicated transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels and alveolar macrophages in initiating the permeability increase in response to high peak inflation pressure (PIP) ventilation. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from TRPV4(-/-) and TRPV4(+/+) mice and instilled in the lungs of mice of the opposite genotype. Filtration(More)
Hyaluronan (formerly hyaluronic acid) is an important constituent of the interstitial matrix in skin. Following major burn injury in animal models, plasma hyaluronan can increase to levels 10-fold greater than normal. The present experiments were designed to determine whether this is a result of the increased lymph flow (QL) accompanying the injury or of an(More)