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A procedure to obtain a topology of an optimal structure considering flexibility is presented. The methodology is based on a mutual energy concept for formulation of flexibility and the homogenization method. A multi-objective optimization problem is formulated as an application of compliant mechanism design. Some examples of the design of compliant(More)
BACKGROUND In the area of instrument evaluation, one aspect that still requires objective assessment is the dynamics of instrument maneuver and exchange. If we could gain a better understanding of these phenomena, we could improve the design of the instruments themselves. METHODS A total of 29 laparoscopic procedures were videotaped and reviewed using(More)
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are the commonest neurodegenerative disorders of children. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of NCL in Newfoundland, identify the causative genes, and analyze the relationship between phenotype and genotype. Patients with NCL diagnosed between 1960 and 2005 were ascertained through the(More)
Recently, smoothly-deforming aircraft structures have been investigated for their ability to adapt to varying flight conditions. Researchers aim to achieve large changes in the shape of the wings: area changes of up to 50% and aspect-ratio changes of up to 200% are being pursued. The research described in this paper aims to develop a structural concept(More)
Compliant mechanisms that can perform multiple unique functions have great potential for use in minimally invasive therapy. A fully compliant mechanism may be thought of as a monolithic mechanism without hinge joints which uses elastic deformation to achieve force and motion transmission. Incorporating multifunctional compliant mechanisms into minimally(More)
Free-standing mesoscale (340 mum x 30 mum x 20 mum) bend bars with an aspect ratio over 15:1 and an edge resolution as fine as a single grain diameter ( approximately 400 nm) have been fabricated in large numbers on refractory ceramic substrates by combining a novel powder processing approach with photoresist molds and an innovative lost-mold thermal(More)
BACKGROUND Advances in minimally invasive surgical techniques will require new types of instrument end-effectors for smaller, longer, and flexible instruments. These include a new class of multifunctional instruments capable of performing more than 1 task with a single set of working jaws. Furthermore, it is desired that multifunctional instruments be(More)