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INTRODUCTION Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne disease in the United States, causing an estimated one in 15 U.S. residents to become ill each year as well as 56,000-71,000 hospitalizations and 570-800 deaths, predominantly among young children and the elderly. Whereas noroviruses often spread through person-to-person(More)
In October 2009, a new genogroup II, type 4 (GII.4) norovirus variant was identified in the United States. We collected norovirus outbreak data from 30 states to assess whether this new strain was associated with increased acute gastroenteritis activity. No increase in norovirus outbreaks was observed during the 2009-2010 winter.
BACKGROUND Cases of rotavirus-associated acute gastroenteritis have declined since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, but the burden of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis in children remains to be assessed. METHODS We conducted active surveillance for laboratory-confirmed cases of norovirus among children younger than 5 years of age with(More)
Implemented in 2009, the National Outbreak Reporting System provides surveillance for acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in the United States resulting from any transmission mode. Data from the first 2 years of surveillance highlight the predominant role of norovirus. The pathogen-specific transmission pathways and exposure settings identified can help inform(More)
BACKGROUND Routine rotavirus vaccination of US infants began in 2006. We conducted active, population-based surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations in 3 US counties to assess vaccine impact. METHODS Children <36 months old hospitalized with diarrhea and/or vomiting were enrolled from January through June each year during the period(More)
BACKGROUND Enterovirus infections are very common and typically cause mild illness, although neonates are at higher risk for severe illness. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) received multiple reports of severe neonatal illness and death associated with coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1), a less common enterovirus serotype not previously(More)
Dermacentor occidentalis Marx and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) commonly bite humans in California. These Dermacentor species may play a role in transmitting spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae to humans in many parts of the state where Dermacentor andersoni Stiles, a known vector for the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Rickettsia(More)
BACKGROUND Although rotavirus and norovirus cause nearly 40% of severe endemic acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children <5 years of age in the United States, there are limited data on the etiologic role of other enteric viruses in this age group. METHODS We conducted active population-based surveillance in children presenting with AGE to hospitals,(More)
Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are double stranded RNA viruses that are a significant cause of acute pediatric gastroenteritis. Beginning in 2006 and 2008, respectively, two vaccines, Rotarix™ and RotaTeq®, have been approved for use in the USA for prevention of RVA disease. The effects of possible vaccine pressure on currently circulating strains in the USA and(More)
PROBLEM/CONDITION Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of illness in the United States, with an estimated 179 million episodes annually. AGE outbreaks propagated through direct person-to-person contact, contaminated environmental surfaces, and unknown modes of transmission were not systematically captured at the national level before 2009 and thus(More)