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The effects of adrenal corticosteroids on subsequent adrenocorticotropin secretion are complex. Acutely (within hours), glucocorticoids (GCs) directly inhibit further activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, but the chronic actions (across days) of these steroids on brain are directly excitatory. Chronically high concentrations of GCs act in(More)
Glucocorticoids either inhibit or sensitize stress-induced activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, depending on time after their administration, the concentration of the steroids, and whether there is a concurrent stressor input. When there are high glucocorticoids together with a chronic stressor, the steroids act in brain in a(More)
We tested whether corticosterone replacement causes increased sucrose drinking in adrenalectomized (ADX) rats compared to sham-ADX (sham) rats. ADX rats given high doses of corticosterone drank as much sucrose as sham rats, whereas at three lower doses of corticosterone, drinking was similar between groups and was only approximately 40% of that ingested by(More)
Unlike normal rats, adrenalectomized rats do not voluntarily drink sweet saccharin solutions. To test whether this is a function of corticosterone in the circulation, and if corticosterone also increases the impetus for drinking saccharin after a period of withdrawal, we performed the following experiments. Young male rats were sham adrenalectomized (sham)(More)
To begin to understand the effects of chronic stress on food intake and energy stores, the effects of increased activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and glucocorticoids (GCs) on the body and brain must first be understood. We propose two major systems that are both GC sensitive: a metabolic feedback that is inhibitory and a direct(More)
The effect of chronic streptozotocin-induced diabetes on phospholipid metabolism in rat sciatic nerve in vitro was investigated. In normal nerve incubated for 2 h in Krebs-Ringer-bicarbonate buffer containing [32P]orthophosphate, radioactivity was primarily incorporated into phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylcholine. Smaller amounts were(More)
The mediobasal hypothalamus regulates functions necessary for survival, including body energy balance and adaptation to stress. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the contribution of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) in controlling these two functions by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Circular, horizontal cuts (1.0 mm radius) were placed(More)
Both CRF and norepinephrine (NE) inhibit food intake and stimulate ACTH secretion and sympathetic outflow. CRF also increases anxiety; NE increases attention and cortical arousal. Adrenalectomy (ADX) changes CRF and NE activity in brain, increases ACTH secretion and sympathetic outflow and reduces food intake and weight gain; all of these effects are(More)
In adrenalectomized (ADX) rats, either corticosterone replacement or increased sucrose intake will restore body weight gain, uncoupling protein-1, fat depot mass, food intake and corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA expression to normal. Here, we tested the potential interactions between sucrose intake and circulating corticosterone on behavioural,(More)
The influence of varying doses of streptozotocin and preventive insulin treatment on phospholipid metabolism in sciatic nerve in vitro from diabetic rats was studied. Animals were given 30, 45, and 60 mg/kg injections of streptozotocin and 10 weeks later nerves were removed and incubated in the presence of [32P]-orthophosphate. The quantity of isotope(More)