Learn More
The effects of adrenal corticosteroids on subsequent adrenocorticotropin secretion are complex. Acutely (within hours), glucocorticoids (GCs) directly inhibit further activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, but the chronic actions (across days) of these steroids on brain are directly excitatory. Chronically high concentrations of GCs act in(More)
Glucocorticoids either inhibit or sensitize stress-induced activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, depending on time after their administration, the concentration of the steroids, and whether there is a concurrent stressor input. When there are high glucocorticoids together with a chronic stressor, the steroids act in brain in a(More)
To identify the sequences of changes in putative signals, reception of these and responses to starvation, we sampled fed and starved rats at 2- to 6-h intervals after removal of food 2 h before dark. Metabolites, hormones, hypothalamic neuropeptide expression, fat depots, and leptin expression were measured. At 2 h, insulin decreased, and FFA and(More)
We tested whether corticosterone replacement causes increased sucrose drinking in adrenalectomized (ADX) rats compared to sham-ADX (sham) rats. ADX rats given high doses of corticosterone drank as much sucrose as sham rats, whereas at three lower doses of corticosterone, drinking was similar between groups and was only approximately 40% of that ingested by(More)
The mediobasal hypothalamus regulates functions necessary for survival, including body energy balance and adaptation to stress. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the contribution of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) in controlling these two functions by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Circular, horizontal cuts (1.0 mm radius) were placed(More)
Plasma corticosteroid concentrations are altered in pregnancy, during the reproductive cycle and by ovariectomy in many species. This study was designed to examine basal ACTH and cortisol in ewes of four different reproductive statuses: ovariectomized, nonpregnant cycling, nonpregnant noncycling, and pregnant. Blood samples were drawn every 4 hr for 48 hr(More)
Tobacco and alcohol use are well-known risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), but there has been little examination of disparities in SCCHN and racial patterns of tobacco and alcohol use, especially for African-Americans. The Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Study, a population-based case–control study, was utilized to determine(More)
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis plays an essential role in the maturation of fetal organs and, in sheep, birth. Lesioning the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in fetal sheep prevents adrenocortical maturation and parturition without altering plasma immunoreactive ACTH concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of PVN(More)
Unlike normal rats, adrenalectomized rats do not voluntarily drink sweet saccharin solutions. To test whether this is a function of corticosterone in the circulation, and if corticosterone also increases the impetus for drinking saccharin after a period of withdrawal, we performed the following experiments. Young male rats were sham adrenalectomized (sham)(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent reports have linked oral health and periodontal disease indicators with increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN). Thus far, evidence has been inconclusive; our objective was to study the association between oral health and SCCHN risk in the context of a large population-based study. METHODS A population-based(More)