Mary Edith Penny

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OBJECTIVES This study assessed the effects of zinc supplementation in the prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia with the use of a pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials in children in developing countries. STUDY DESIGN Trials included were those that provided oral supplements containing at least one half of the United States Recommended Daily(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage after demonstration projects conducted in India, Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam by PATH and national governments and to explore the reasons for vaccine acceptance or refusal. METHODS Vaccines were delivered through schools or health centres or in combination with other health interventions,(More)
BACKGROUND Zinc supplements reduce childhood morbidity in populations in whom zinc deficiency is common. In such populations, deficiencies in other micronutrients may also occur. OBJECTIVE The objective was to determine whether the administration of other micronutrients with zinc modifies the effect of zinc supplementation on children's morbidity and(More)
BACKGROUND Malnutrition is the underlying cause of half of child mortality. Many programmes attempt to remedy this issue but there is a lack of evidence on effective ways to decrease child malnutrition. METHODS We did a cluster-randomised trial of an educational intervention in a poor periurban area (ie, shanty town) of Peru. Guided by formative research,(More)
Young Lives is an international longitudinal study investigating the changing nature of childhood poverty in four low-income countries [Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam] over a 15-year period. In each country, the cohort is comprised of ≈ 2000 children aged between 6 and 18 months and up to 1000 children aged between 7 and 8 years,(More)
BACKGROUND Information is needed on the fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) and absorbed zinc (AZ) during prolonged exposure to zinc-fortified foods. OBJECTIVE The objective was to measure FAZ and AZ from diets fortified with different amounts of zinc and to determine whether zinc absorption changes over approximately 7 wk. DESIGN Forty-one stunted,(More)
Several nucleic acid-based amplification tests are available for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but few data are available on their use in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). We performed a prospective study to assess the Roche AMPLICOR Mycobacterium tuberculosis PCR test (TB AMPLICOR) for use in the diagnosis of TBM and compared it(More)
Process evaluation was used to explain the success of a randomized, controlled trial of an educational intervention to improve the feeding behaviors of caregivers and the nutritional status of infants in Trujillo, Peru. Health personnel delivered a multicomponent intervention within the environment of usual care at government health centers. We created a(More)
This article discusses the process for obtaining genuine informed consent for the participation of human subjects in research in developing countries. We discuss the consent process in the light of recently published guidelines, the experience of nutrition and health research projects, and the ethics review process of the Instituto de Investigacion(More)
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer affecting women worldwide and it is an important cause of death, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) and can be prevented by HPV vaccine. The challenge is to expand vaccine availability to countries where it is most needed. In 2008(More)