Mary E. White

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The growth hormone receptor (GHR) is a critical regulator of postnatal growth and metabolism. However, the GHR signaling domains and pathways that regulate these processes in vivo are not defined. We report the first knock-in mouse models with deletions of specific domains of the receptor that are required for its in vivo actions. Mice expressing(More)
How germ cells are specified in the embryos of animals has been a mystery for decades. Unlike most developmental processes, which are highly conserved, embryos specify germ cells in very different ways. Curiously, in mouse embryos germ cells are specified by extracellular signals; they are not autonomously specified by maternal germ cell determinants (germ(More)
GH is generally believed to signal exclusively through Janus tyrosine kinases (JAK), particularly JAK2, leading to activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT), ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways, resulting in transcriptional regulation of target genes. Here we report the creation of targeted knock-in mice wherein the(More)
The germ line is established in animal embryos with the formation of primordial germ cells (PGCs), which give rise to gametes. Therefore, the need to form PGCs can act as a developmental constraint by inhibiting the evolution of embryonic patterning mechanisms that compromise their development. Conversely, events that stabilize the PGCs may liberate these(More)
Contemporary geographical range and patterns of genetic diversity within species reflect complex interactions between multiple factors acting across spatial and temporal scales, and it is notoriously difficult to disentangle causation. Here, we quantify patterns of genetic diversity and genetic population structure using mitochondrial DNA sequences (101(More)
Phylogenetic hypotheses of muscle actin evolution are significantly different when a sea urchin is used as a representative echinoderm than when a sea star is used. While sea urchin muscle actins support an echinoderm–chordate sister relationship, sea star sequences suggest that echinoderm muscle actins are convergent with chordate muscle actins. Our(More)
Developmental constraint and its converse constraint release are significant concepts in understanding pattern and process in macroevolution. The purpose of this paper is to propose a two-step method for identifying constraints and constraint release. The first step is a phylogenetic optimization procedure to identify which trait/process is primitive and(More)
Background: Explanations for asymmetric patterns of diversification continue to challenge paleontologists and neontologists with competing hypotheses within genetic-development and ecological frameworks. In 1988, a hypothesis was proposed that tied a primordial germ cell (PGC) determination mechanism to clade (phyla) diversification. Two general mechanisms(More)
The GH receptor (GHR) is essential for normal postnatal growth and development, and the molecular basis of GHR action has been studied intensively. Clinical case studies and more recently mouse models have revealed the extensive phenotype of impaired GH action. We recently reported two new mouse models, possessing cytoplasmic truncations at position 569(More)
Phylogenetics has been shown to be a useful forensics tool, and this use can be expanded to the conservation arena. Here we employ phylogenetics to test a cryptozoological specimen for species identification. Over the past decade, one of us (JW) has been collecting and recording stories about unusual animals in the Manitoba wilderness of Canada. Recently, a(More)