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CD82, also known as KAI1, was recently identified as a prostate cancer metastasis suppressor gene on human chromosome 11p1.2 (ref. 1). The product of CD82 is KAI1, a 40- to 75-kDa tetraspanin cell-surface protein also known as the leukocyte cell-surface marker CD82 (refs. 1,2). Downregulation of KAI1 has been found to be clinically associated with(More)
Insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) maintain vital neuronal functions. Absolute or functional deficiencies of insulin or IGF-I may contribute to neuronal and vascular complications associated with diabetes. Vanilloid receptor 1 (also called TRPV1) is an ion channel that mediates inflammatory thermal nociception and is present on sensory neurons.(More)
The mammalian defense system can respond to a variety of threats, but this capability is not just a simple alarm system for triggering antigen-presenting cells and initiating cellular immunity. Instead, the body is an integrated system in which nearly every cell type can relay the alarm through the production of chemokines, which recruit specific(More)
The diagnostic and therapeutic applications of antibody single-chain Fv (sFv) fragments often require large amounts of protein that can be problematic and expensive to obtain. Here we report the secretion of two sFv fragments by the yeast Pichia pastoris at levels up to 250 mg/l. Soluble sFv fragments were purified from culture supernatants in one step by(More)
A common complication associated with diabetes is painful or painless diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The mechanisms and determinants responsible for these peripheral neuropathies are poorly understood. Using both streptozotocin (STZ)-induced and transgene-mediated murine models of type 1 diabetes (T1D), we demonstrate that Transient Receptor(More)
The resolution of acute inflammation is incompletely understood but presumably requires the elimination of both inflammatory cells and production of inflammatory cytokines. In the case of recruited bone-marrow-derived inflammatory cells such as granulocytes and macrophages, their short life span helps eliminate these cells and the cytokines they produce. By(More)
Streptozotocin (STZ) is a diabetogenic agent extensively used to induce diabetes and to study complications including diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). While studying the influence of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) on DPN in the STZ-induced diabetic mouse model, we found that a proportion of STZ-treated mice was nondiabetic but still(More)
During inflammation, chemokines are conductors of lymphocyte trafficking. The chemokine CXCL10 is expressed early after virus infection. In a virus-induced mouse model for type 1 diabetes, CXCL10 blockade abrogated disease by interfering with trafficking of autoaggressive lymphocytes to the pancreas. We have generated transgenic rat insulin promotor(More)
Patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease are characterized by extreme vulnerability to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Following infection with EBV, affected males develop fatal infectious mononucleosis (IM), hypogammaglobulinemia (H), or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). In addition, hyper IgM, red cell aplasia, necrotizing lymphoid vasculitis (NLV),(More)
In a number of animal models of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes, pathogenesis has been highly correlated with autoreactive T-cell production of the type 1 cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), while protection from disease was associated with type 2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4. Curiously, in some models, diabetes is associated with unexpected(More)