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The mammalian defense system can respond to a variety of threats, but this capability is not just a simple alarm system for triggering antigen-presenting cells and initiating cellular immunity. Instead, the body is an integrated system in which nearly every cell type can relay the alarm through the production of chemokines, which recruit specific(More)
The diagnostic and therapeutic applications of antibody single-chain Fv (sFv) fragments often require large amounts of protein that can be problematic and expensive to obtain. Here we report the secretion of two sFv fragments by the yeast Pichia pastoris at levels up to 250 mg/l. Soluble sFv fragments were purified from culture supernatants in one step by(More)
A common complication associated with diabetes is painful or painless diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The mechanisms and determinants responsible for these peripheral neuropathies are poorly understood. Using both streptozotocin (STZ)-induced and transgene-mediated murine models of type 1 diabetes (T1D), we demonstrate that Transient Receptor(More)
Insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) maintain vital neuronal functions. Absolute or functional deficiencies of insulin or IGF-I may contribute to neuronal and vascular complications associated with diabetes. Vanilloid receptor 1 (also called TRPV1) is an ion channel that mediates inflammatory thermal nociception and is present on sensory neurons.(More)
CD82, also known as KAI1, was recently identified as a prostate cancer metastasis suppressor gene on human chromosome 11p1.2 (ref. 1). The product of CD82 is KAI1, a 40- to 75-kDa tetraspanin cell-surface protein also known as the leukocyte cell-surface marker CD82 (refs. 1,2). Downregulation of KAI1 has been found to be clinically associated with(More)
Streptozotocin (STZ) is a diabetogenic agent extensively used to induce diabetes and to study complications including diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). While studying the influence of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) on DPN in the STZ-induced diabetic mouse model, we found that a proportion of STZ-treated mice was nondiabetic but still(More)
Fatty acid synthase (FAS), a key enzyme of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, has been shown to be overexpressed in various types of human cancer and is, therefore, considered to be an attractive target for anticancer therapy. However, the exact mechanism of overexpression of the FAS gene in tumor cells is not well understood. In this report, we(More)
The resolution of acute inflammation is incompletely understood but presumably requires the elimination of both inflammatory cells and production of inflammatory cytokines. In the case of recruited bone-marrow-derived inflammatory cells such as granulocytes and macrophages, their short life span helps eliminate these cells and the cytokines they produce. By(More)
Patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease are characterized by extreme vulnerability to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Following infection with EBV, affected males develop fatal infectious mononucleosis (IM), hypogammaglobulinemia (H), or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). In addition, hyper IgM, red cell aplasia, necrotizing lymphoid vasculitis (NLV),(More)
The transcription factor c-Maf is critical for IL-4 production and the development of Th2 cells, which promote humoral immunity and protect against extracellular parasites. Yet, little else is known of c-Maf function in CD4 cells. Here, we identify a novel role for c-Maf in regulating susceptibility to apoptosis. Overexpression of c-Maf results in increased(More)