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Various studies indicate that cytodifferentiation of Clara cells and development of pulmonary cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases occur postnatally. The timing of these events is species-specific. Neonatal mice are more susceptible than adult mice are to Clara cell injury by naphthalene, but little is known about the postnatal development of Clara cells(More)
Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32(More)
Foraging birds finding foods containing protein of various quality could satisfy their amino acid needs by either 1) choosing only those foods that contain a suitable array of essential amino acids, or 2) choosing foods in amounts that permit complementation of constituent amino acids. We studied the abilities of sparrows (Zonotrichia leuchophrys gambelii)(More)
We have shown that a combination of fish oil (high in n-3 fatty acids) with the butyrate-producing fiber pectin, upregulates apoptosis in colon cells exposed to the carcinogen azoxymethane, protecting against colon tumor development. We now hypothesize that n-3 fatty acids prime the colonocytes such that butyrate can initiate apoptosis. To test this, 30(More)
This study evaluated the hypothesis that untreated and irradiated grapefruit as well as the isolated citrus compounds naringin and limonin would protect against azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) by suppressing proliferation and elevating apoptosis through anti-inflammatory activities. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 100) were provided one(More)
OBJECTIVE Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a standard measure of chronic glycemia for managing diabetes, has been proposed to diagnose diabetes and identify people at risk. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a 3.2-year randomized clinical trial of preventing type 2 diabetes with a 10-year follow-up study, the DPP Outcomes Study (DPPOS). We evaluated(More)
In this article we focus on clustering techniques recently proposed for high-dimensional data that incorporate variable selection and extend them to the modeling of data with a known substructure, such as the structure imposed by an experimental design. Our method essentially approximates the within-group covariance by facilitating clustering without(More)
White-crowned Sparrows (WCS) were given free access to pairs of semisynthetic diets that were either adequate or subadequate (25% of requirement) in valine or lysine. Within 2 to 4 days WCS chose a ratio of the paired diets that allowed them to maintain body mass or restore any losses quickly. On the initial choice days the birds transiently reduced total(More)
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