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Fluid shear stress generated by blood flowing over the endothelium is a major determinant of arterial tone, vascular remodeling, and atherogenesis. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays an essential role in regulation of vascular function and structure by blood flow, but the molecular mechanisms that transduce mechanical force(More)
Our purpose was to evaluate hyporesponsivity to nitric oxide (NO)-induced dilation in small arterioles during nitrate tolerance. An Alza osmotic pump was implanted in the left flank of adult rats (n = 56) for continuous administration of nitroglycerin (140 microg/h) or vehicle (propylene glycol). On postoperative day 3, arcade (approximately 50-microm(More)
Our purpose was to determine whether L-arginine was involved in vascular communication between downstream and upstream locations within a defined microvascular region. Arteriolar diameter was measured for the branches along a transverse arteriole in the superfused cremaster of anesthetized (pentobarbital sodium, 70 mg/kg i.p.) hamsters (N = 53). The(More)
OBJECTIVE The mechanism by which remote microvascular preconditioning (RMP) response is initiated was recently reported (Am J Physiol 290:H264, 2006). The goal of this study was to further characterize RMP and to investigate the extent to which RMP altered local vasoactive responses. METHODS Arteriolar networks were examined in the cheek pouch of(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the terminal arteriolar network structure and function in relation to circulating plasma cytokine levels in db/db, ob/ob, and their genetic background control, C57/bl6, mice. METHODS Arteriolar network size and erythrocyte distribution were observed in the resting cremaster muscle (n = 45, pentobarbital 50 mg/kg i.p.). Structural(More)
Our purpose was to investigate the local mechanisms involved in network-wide flow and diameter changes observed with localized downstream vitronectin receptor ligation; we tested specific K or Cl channels known to be involved in either dilation or elevated permeability following vitronectin receptor activation and tested integrin-linked pathway elements of(More)
The identification of the physical mechanism(s) by which cells can sense vibrations requires the determination of the cellular mechanical environment. Here, we quantified vibration-induced fluid shear stresses in vitro and tested whether this system allows for the separation of two mechanical parameters previously proposed to drive the cellular response to(More)
Our purpose was to determine whether the endothelial cell-dependent dilatory pathways contribute to the regulation of flow distribution in an intact arteriolar network. Cell flow, wall shear stress (T omega), diameter, and bifurcation angle were determined for four sequential branches of a transverse arteriole in the superfused cremaster muscle of(More)
OBJECTIVE To construct an in vitro endothelial cell culture system which would mimic the geometry and hemodynamic conditions of the arteriolar microcirculation. METHODS Using a photolithography technique, semicircular channels (20-50 microns in diameter) were etched in mirror-image patterns on pairs of borosilicate microscope slide glass. One-half of each(More)
OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to investigate the effect of the shape of the growth surface (curved versus flat) on flow-induced F-actin organization in endothelial cells. METHODS Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were grown to confluence on curved or flat surfaces. Microchannels (curved surface, 10- to 30-microm radius) or parallel plate flow chambers(More)