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Only recently have the functional implications of the organization of the ventral striatum, amygdala, and related limbic-cortical structures, and their neuroanatomical interactions begun to be clarified. Processes of activation and reward have long been associated with the NAcc and its dopamine innervation, but the precise relationships between these(More)
Dopamine release within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been associated with both the rewarding and locomotor-stimulant effects of abused drugs. The functions of the NAcc core and shell were investigated in mediating amphetamine-potentiated conditioned reinforcement and locomotion. Rats were initially trained to associate a neutral stimulus (Pavlovian CS)(More)
Experiment 1 examined whether microinjections of morphine (1 microg in 0.5 microl over 1 min x 2 pairings) into 13 different CNS sites produced a conditioned place preference (CPP). Injections into the lateral ventricles (LV), ventral tegmental area (VTA), or periaqueductal gray (PAG) produced a CPP; injections 1 mm dorsal to the PAG or VTA, or into the(More)
Binge drinking on university campuses is associated with social and health-related problems. To determine the factors that may predict this behavior, we collected information on alcohol use, alcohol expectations, and impulsivity from 428 undergraduate students attending a Canadian university. The subjective effects of a binge drinking dose of alcohol were(More)
Compulsion and impulsivity are both primary features of drug addiction. Based on decades of animal research, we have a detailed understanding of the factors (both environmental and physiological) that influence compulsive drug use, but still know relatively little about the impulsive aspects of drug addiction. This review outlines our current knowledge of(More)
Clinical reports and animal experiments indicate that both cocaine administration and cocaine withdrawal increase anxiety. We investigated the ability of a number of putative anxiolytic agents to alleviate these anxiety states using the elevated plus-maze. Rats in the cocaine condition received either saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg) 40 min prior to testing;(More)
The current study investigated whether acute alcohol intoxication produces impaired decision-making on tasks assessing ventromedial prefrontal (VMF) cortex functioning and impulsive responding. Participants completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a decision-making test targeting the VMF, and the Newman Perseveration Task (NT), a measure of impulsivity.(More)
Opiates produce analgesia by activating mu opioid receptor-linked inhibitory G protein signaling cascades and related ion channel interactions that suppress cellular activities by hyperpolarization. After chronic opiate exposure, an excitatory effect emerges contributing to analgesic tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Ultra-low-dose opioid(More)
RATIONALE In animal models of drug self-administration, response rates often decrease with dose suggesting that a regulative process may mask the reinforcing effects of the drug. OBJECTIVE The purpose of the present experiments was to dissociate the role of regulative and reinforcement processes in intravenous cocaine self-administration by rats using a(More)
Drug addiction can be considered an impulse control disorder in that addicts exhibit increased impulsivity on both behavioural and self-report measures. We investigated whether chronic cocaine affects delay of gratification and/or behavioural disinhibition in rats using the delayed reinforcement and Go/No-go paradigms. Animals were treated with saline or(More)