Mary C Olmstead

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Dopamine release within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been associated with both the rewarding and locomotor-stimulant effects of abused drugs. The functions of the NAcc core and shell were investigated in mediating amphetamine-potentiated conditioned reinforcement and locomotion. Rats were initially trained to associate a neutral stimulus (Pavlovian CS)(More)
Only recently have the functional implications of the organization of the ventral striatum, amygdala, and related limbic-cortical structures, and their neuroanatomical interactions begun to be clarified. Processes of activation and reward have long been associated with the NAcc and its dopamine innervation, but the precise relationships between these(More)
Opiates produce analgesia by activating mu opioid receptor-linked inhibitory G protein signaling cascades and related ion channel interactions that suppress cellular activities by hyperpolarization. After chronic opiate exposure, an excitatory effect emerges contributing to analgesic tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Ultra-low-dose opioid(More)
Sustained attention requires the integrity of basal forebrain cholinergic systems. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) has direct and indirect connections (via the thalamus) with the basal forebrain, suggesting that the PPTg may also play an important role in attentional processes. We examined this hypothesis by testing the effects of PPTg lesions(More)
AIMS To examine the moderating effects of alcohol myopia on cognitive impulsivity in humans using the delay-discounting paradigm. METHODS Seventy-six male undergraduate students were randomly assigned to sober, placebo or alcohol conditions. In the delay-discounting task, participants made a series of hypothetical choices between a small, immediate reward(More)
Drug addiction can be considered an impulse control disorder in that addicts exhibit increased impulsivity on both behavioural and self-report measures. We investigated whether chronic cocaine affects delay of gratification and/or behavioural disinhibition in rats using the delayed reinforcement and Go/No-go paradigms. Animals were treated with saline or(More)
In two experiments rats were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine on chained schedules using different responses in the initial (drug-seeking) and terminal (drug-taking) links. In both between- (Experiment 1) and within-subject designs (Experiment 2), the drug-taking response was then either extinguished or reinforced in the absence of the(More)
Experiment 1 examined whether microinjections of morphine (1 microg in 0.5 microl over 1 min x 2 pairings) into 13 different CNS sites produced a conditioned place preference (CPP). Injections into the lateral ventricles (LV), ventral tegmental area (VTA), or periaqueductal gray (PAG) produced a CPP; injections 1 mm dorsal to the PAG or VTA, or into the(More)
The role of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) in stimulus-reward learning was assessed by testing the effects of PPTg lesions on performance in visual autoshaping and conditioned reinforcement (CRf) paradigms. Rats with PPTg lesions were unable to learn an association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and a primary reward in either paradigm.(More)
Early environmental experience produces profound neural and behavioural effects. For example, animals reared in isolation show increased anxiety, neophobia, and poorer performance in learning and spatial memory tasks. We investigated whether later enrichment reverses some or all of the deficits induced by isolation rearing. Eighty-four male Long-Evans rats(More)