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We have investigated the possibility that soluble, blood-borne amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides can cross a defective blood-brain barrier (BBB) and interact with neurons in the brain. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed extravasated plasma components, including Abeta42 in 19 of 21 AD brains, but in only 3 of 13 age-matched control brains, suggesting that a(More)
The presence of self-reactive IgG autoantibodies in human sera is largely thought to represent a breakdown in central tolerance and is typically regarded as a harbinger of autoimmune pathology. In the present study, immune-response profiling of human serum from 166 individuals via human protein microarrays demonstrates that IgG autoantibodies are abundant(More)
Previous studies have reported immunoglobulin-positive neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, an observation indicative of blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. Recently, we demonstrated the nearly ubiquitous presence of brain-reactive autoantibodies in human sera. The significance of these observations to AD pathology is unknown. Here, we show that(More)
Deposition of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides in the walls of brain blood vessels, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), is common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have demonstrated Abeta peptide deposition among vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but the source of the Abeta and basis for its selective deposition in VSMCs are(More)
Axons have been shown to contain substantial quantities of actin distributed along their length. However, the general lack of information on the structure and organizational state of this protein in axons has made it difficult to assign it a functional role. In the present study, we used electron microscopic immunocytochemistry (immunogold labeling) on(More)
Cancer is a leading cause of death of men and women worldwide. Tumor cell motility contributes to metastatic invasion that causes the vast majority of cancer deaths. Extracellular receptors modified by α2,3-sialic acids that promote this motility can serve as ideal chemotherapeutic targets. For example, the extracellular domain of the mucin receptor(More)
The formation of the neural tube, the rudiment of the entire central nervous system, is one of the earliest morphogenetic movements. The origin of the driving forces for this process remains uncertain, but recent studies suggest the involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the present study, we have used morphometry, analysis of stereopair(More)
Prenatal cocaine exposure produces sustained neurobehavioral and brain synaptic changes closely resembling those of animals with defective AMPA receptors (AMPARs). We hypothesized that prenatal cocaine exposure attenuates AMPAR signaling by interfering with AMPAR synaptic targeting. AMPAR function is governed by receptor cycling on and off the synaptic(More)
A large percentage of patients subjected to general anesthesia at 65 years and older exhibit postoperative delirium (POD). Here, we test the hypothesis that inhaled anesthetics (IAs), such as Sevoflurane and Isoflurane, act directly on brain vascular endothelial cells (BVECs) to increase blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, thereby contributing to POD.(More)
The biomechanical basis of diazepam (Valium/Roche)-induced neural tube defects in the chick was investigated using a combination of electron microscopy and morphometry. Embryos at stage 8 (four-somite stage) of development were explanted and grown for 6 hr in nutrient medium containing 400 micrograms/ml diazepam. Nearly 80% of these embryos exhibited neural(More)