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Phosphorylase removes glucosyl units from the terminal branches of glycogen through phosphorolysis, forming glucose-1-P. It is present in two interconvertible forms, phosphorylase a and b. The a form is the active form and is rate limiting in glycogen degradation. The activities of phosphorylase a and of total phosphorylase as conventionally measured exceed(More)
We previously have shown that ingested beef protein is just as potent as glucose in stimulating a rise in insulin concentration in type II diabetic patients. A synergistic effect was seen when given with glucose. Therefore, we considered it important to determine if other common dietary proteins also strongly stimulate an increase in insulin concentration(More)
BACKGROUND We previously determined that a weight-maintenance, non-ketogenic diet containing 30% carbohydrate (CHO), 30% protein, 40% fat, (30:30:40) (LoBAG30) decreased glycated hemoglobin (%tGHb) from 10.8 to 9.1% over a 5 week period in subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes. Both the fasting glucose and postprandial glucose area were decreased. Our(More)
Ten normal subjects were given 50 g starch, or 50 g starch + 50 g fat as a breakfast meal. The starch was given in the form of potato; the fat was given in the form of butter. The meals were ingested at 8 a.m. Plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and triglyceride concentrations were measured at various time points for 4 hours after each meal. The net 4-hour(More)
In seven type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients, given either 50 g glucose or a mixed meal potentially containing 61 g glucose as starch and sucrose, the postmeal plasma glucose area integrated over 4 h was less after the mixed meal. The insulin area was considerably greater (2.1-fold). The greater increase in insulin could be explained largely,(More)
Amino acids derived from ingested protein are potential substrates for gluconeogenesis. However, several laboratories have reported that protein ingestion does not result in an increase in the circulating glucose concentration in people with or without type 2 diabetes. The reason for this has remained unclear. In people without diabetes it seems to be due(More)
BACKGROUND In single-meal studies, dietary protein does not result in an increase in glucose concentrations in persons with or without type 2 diabetes, even though the resulting amino acids can be used for gluconeogenesis. OBJECTIVE The metabolic effects of a high-protein diet were compared with those of the prototypical healthy (control) diet, which is(More)
In subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes, we previously determined that a weight-maintenance, non-ketogenic diet containing 30 % protein, 50 % fat and 20 % carbohydrate (30:50:20) decreased the percentage total glycohaemoglobin (%tGHb) by 2.2 % glycohaemoglobin over 5 weeks compared to a diet recommended for the American public (protein-fat-carbohydrate(More)
BACKGROUND Over the past several years our research group has taken a systematic, comprehensive approach to determining the effects on body function (hormonal and non-hormonal) of varying the amounts and types of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in the diet. We have been particularly interested in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes. Our objective has(More)
Our laboratory is interested in the metabolic effects of ingested proteins. As part of this research, we currently are investigating the metabolic effects of ingested individual amino acids. The objective of the current study was to determine whether leucine stimulates insulin and/or glucagon secretion and whether, when it is ingested with glucose, it(More)