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alpha 1-Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. alpha 1-AR subtypes mediate the effects of the sympathetic nervous system, especially those involved in cardiac homeostasis. To investigate signal transduction by a novel subtype (alpha 1D), which we recently cloned, and to compare it with that by the previously(More)
Exenatide once-weekly (EQW [2 mg s.c.]) is under development as monotherapy as an adjunct to diet and exercise or as a combination therapy with an oral antidiabetes drug(s) in adults with type 2 diabetes. This long-acting formulation contains the active ingredient of the original exenatide twice-daily (EBID) formulation encapsulated in 0.06-mm-diameter(More)
BACKGROUND Considerable clinical data on the treatment of type 2 diabetes with incretin-based therapies (glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists [GLP-1RAs] and dipeptidyl-peptidase IV [DPP-4] inhibitors) are available. OBJECTIVE This meta-analysis was performed to support the understanding of the overall evidence by summarizing the findings from studies(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes is associated with a higher risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. To improve the health outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommended target goals for the improvement of glycemic control and the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors associated with the disease. This(More)
Butorphanol and nalbuphine have substantial affinity for mu and kappa-opioid receptor sites, yet their behavioral effects in monkeys are largely consistent with a mu receptor mechanism of action. Using ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) discrimination and diuresis assays in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), the purpose of the current investigation was to(More)
The major goal in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus is to control the hyperglycaemia characteristic of the disease. However, treatment with common therapies such as insulin or insulinotrophic sulphonylureas (SU), while effective in reducing hyperglycaemia, may impose a greater risk of hypoglycaemia, as neither therapy is self-regulated by ambient(More)
BACKGROUND Elevated plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) are associated with myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and restenosis. PAI-1 is increased in atherosclerotic arteries and failed vein grafts. No experimental data, however, support a causal relationship between elevated PAI-1 expression and vascular lesions.(More)
The mechanism of regulation of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) gene by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) was studied in vitro and in vivo in endothelial cells. We constructed adenovirus vectors containing PAI-1 5'-flanking sequences driving expression of a beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) reporter gene. Cultured bovine endothelial(More)
AIMS Transient nausea and, to a lesser extent, vomiting are common adverse effects of exenatide that can be mitigated by dose titration and usually do not result in treatment discontinuation. This retrospective analysis of data from a phase 1, open-label, parallel-group, single-dose study in healthy subjects evaluated the effect of oral anti-emetics on(More)
Regions of the negative strands of the satellite RNAs of chicory yellow mottle virus (sCYMV1) and arabis mosaic virus (sArMV) have similarity in sequence and predicted secondary structure compared to the tobacco ringspot virus satellite RNA (sTRSV) hairpin ribozyme, suggesting that they may also be catalytic RNAs of a similar type. Our experiments show that(More)