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OBJECTIVES To estimate global, regional (21 regions) and national (187 countries) sodium intakes in adults in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN Bayesian hierarchical modelling using all identifiable primary sources. DATA SOURCES AND ELIGIBILITY We searched and obtained published and unpublished data from 142 surveys of 24 h urinary sodium and 103 of dietary sodium(More)
OBJECTIVE The gold standard method for measuring population sodium intake is based on a 24 h urine collection carried out in a random population sample. However, because participant burden is high, response rates are typically low with less than one in four agreeing to provide specimens. At this low level of response it is possible that simply asking for(More)
AIM Salt reduction efforts usually have a strong focus on consumer education. Understanding the association between salt consumption levels and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt should provide insight into the likely effectiveness of education-based programs. METHODS A single 24-hour urine sample and a questionnaire describing knowledge,(More)
BACKGROUND There is broad consensus that diets high in salt are bad for health and that reducing salt intake is a cost-effective strategy for preventing chronic diseases. The World Health Organization has been supporting the development of salt reduction strategies in the Pacific Islands where salt intakes are thought to be high. However, there are no(More)
BACKGROUND Excess dietary salt is a leading risk for health. Multiple health, government, industry and community organisations have identified the need to reduce consumption of dietary salt. This project seeks to implement and evaluate a community-based salt reduction intervention. METHODS The study comprises a baseline assessment followed by a targeted(More)
The limited Australian measures to reduce population sodium intake through national initiatives targeting sodium in the food supply have not been evaluated. The aim was, thus, to assess if there has been a change in salt intake and discretionary salt use between 2011 and 2014 in the state of Victoria, Australia. Adults drawn from a population sample(More)
BACKGROUND Salt reduction is a public health priority but there are few studies testing the efficacy of plausible salt reduction programs. METHODS A multi-faceted, community-based salt reduction program using the Communication for Behavioral Impact framework was implemented in Lithgow, Australia. Single 24-h urine samples were obtained from 419(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence from numerous studies suggests that salt intake is an important determinant of elevated blood pressure. Robust data about salt consumption among adults in Bangladesh is sparse. However, much evidence suggests saline intrusion due to sea level rise as a result of climate change exposes more than 20 million people to adverse effects of(More)
  • E O'Neill, T H Henson, A J Ghorbani, M A Land, B L Webber, J V Garcia
  • 1996
AIM To detect the prevalence of herpes virus-like DNA sequences in AIDS associated Kaposi sarcoma (KSHV) lesions and normal tissue. METHODS KSHV detection was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using four different sets of primers. PCR products were cloned, sequenced, and analysed. RESULTS All of four biopsies of Kaposi sarcoma lesions and all(More)
BACKGROUND Methods based on spot urine samples (a single sample at one time-point) have been identified as a possible alternative approach to 24-hour urine samples for determining mean population salt intake. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to identify a reliable method for estimating mean population salt intake from spot urine samples. This will be(More)