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Evidence from comparative studies of gene expression and evolution suggest that human neocortical neurons may be characterized by unusually high levels of energy metabolism. The current study examined whether there is a disproportionate increase in glial cell density in the human frontal cortex in comparison with other anthropoid primate species (New World(More)
Inhibitory GABAergic interneurons are important for shaping patterns of activity in neocortical networks. We examined the distributions of inhibitory interneuron subtypes in layer II/III of areas V1 and V2 in 18 genera of anthropoid primates including New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and hominoids (apes and humans). Interneuron subtypes were identified(More)
Cholinergic innervation of the frontal cortex is important in higher cognitive functions and may have been altered in humans relative to other species to support human-specific intellectual capacities. To evaluate this hypothesis we conducted quantitative comparative analyses of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive axons in cortical areas 9, 32, and 4(More)
The neuronal composition of the insula in primates displays a gradient, transitioning from granular neocortex in the posterior-dorsal insula to agranular neocortex in the anterior-ventral insula with an intermediate zone of dysgranularity. Additionally, apes and humans exhibit a distinctive subdomain in the agranular insula, the frontoinsular cortex (FI),(More)
Human evolution was marked by an extraordinary increase in total brain size relative to body size. While it is certain that increased encephalization is an important factor contributing to the origin of our species-specific cognitive abilities, it is difficult to disentangle which aspects of human neural structure and function are correlated by-products of(More)
Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal(More)
Long projection axons from the Ch4 cell group of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) provide cholinergic innervation to the neurons of the cerebral cortex. This cortical cholinergic innervation has been implicated in behavioral and cognitive functions, including learning and memory. Recent evidence revealed differences among primate species in the pattern(More)
In this study, we assess the possibility that the evolution of human intellectual capacities was supported by changes in the supply of serotonin to the frontal cortex. To this end, quantitative comparative analyses were performed among humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. Immunohistochemical methods were used to visualize serotonin transporter-immunoreactive(More)
In this study, we assessed the possibility that humans differ from other primate species in the supply of dopamine to the frontal cortex. To this end, quantitative comparative analyses were performed among humans, chimpanzees, and macaques using immunohistochemical methods to visualize tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive axons within the cerebral cortex.(More)
Neocortical columns are functional and morphological units whose architecture may have been under selective evolutionary pressure in different mammalian lineages in response to encephalization and specializations of cognitive abilities. Inhibitory interneurons make a substantial contribution to the morphology and distribution of minicolumns within the(More)