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A simple, rapid method for bacterial lysis and direct extraction of DNA from soils with minimal shearing was developed to address the risk of chimera formation from small template DNA during subsequent PCR. The method was based on lysis with a high-salt extraction buffer (1.5 M NaCl) and extended heating (2 to 3 h) of the soil suspension in the presence of(More)
We characterized the microbiologically mediated oxidative precipitation of Fe(II) from coalmine-derived acidic mine drainage (AMD) along flow-paths at two sites in northern Pennsylvania. At the Gum Boot site, dissolved Fe(II) was efficiently removed from AMD whereas minimal Fe(II) removal occurred at the Fridays-2 site. Neither site received human(More)
Water treatment technologies are needed that can remove perchlorate from drinking water without introducing organic chemicals that stimulate bacterial growth in water distribution systems. Hydrogen is an ideal energy source for bacterial degradation of perchlorate as it leaves no organic residue and is sparingly soluble. We describe here the isolation of a(More)
Traditionally, studies in microbial genomics have focused on single-genomes from cultured species, thereby limiting their focus to the small percentage of species that can be cultured outside their natural environment. Fortunately, recent advances in high-throughput sequencing and computational analyses have ushered in the new field of metagenomics, which(More)
A mesophilic unsaturated flow (trickle bed) reactor was designed and tested for H2 production via fermentation of glucose. The reactor consisted of a column packed with glass beads and inoculated with a pure culture (Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824). A defined medium containing glucose was fed at a flow rate of 1.6 mL/min (0.096 L/h) into the capped(More)
A single-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was used to reduce 10 chemicals associated with odors by 99.76% (from 422 +/- 23 mug/ml) and three volatile organic acids (acetate, butyrate, and propionate) by >99%. The MFC produced a maximum of 228 mW/m(2) and removed 84% of the organic matter in 260 h. MFCs were therefore effective at both treatment and(More)
A cross-flow membrane was coupled to a chemostat to create an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) for biological hydrogen production. The reactor was fed glucose (10,000 mg/L) and inoculated with a soil inoculum heat-treated to kill non-spore-forming methanogens. Hydrogen gas was consistently produced at a concentration of 57-60% in the headspace under all(More)
Clostridium Selenomonas a b s t r a c t Bacterial community composition during steady-state, fermentative H 2 production was compared across a range of organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.5–19 g COD l À1 h À1 in a 2-l continuous flow reactor at 30 C. The varied OLRs were achieved with glucose concentrations of 2.5–10 g l À1 and hydraulic retention times of(More)
Forest disturbances, including whole-tree harvest, will increase with a growing human population and its rising affluence. Following harvest, forests become sources of C to the atmosphere, partly because wetter and warmer soils (relative to pre-harvest) increase soil CO2 efflux. This relationship between soil microclimate and CO2 suggests that climate(More)
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