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Both calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet possess broad therapeutic potential in various clinical settings and in various animal models of neurological disease. Following calorie restriction or consumption of a ketogenic diet, there is notable improvement in mitochondrial function, a decrease in the expression of apoptotic and inflammatory mediators(More)
Previous studies have shown that ketone bodies (KB) exert antioxidant effects in experimental models of neurological disease. In the present study, we explored the effects of the KB acetoacetate (ACA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in rats by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) using electrophysiological,(More)
Ketone bodies (KB) have been shown to prevent neurodegeneration in models of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. One possibility is that KB may exert antioxidant activity. In the current study, we explored the effects of KB on rat neocortical neurons exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or(More)
Mouse models with physiological and behavioral differences attributable to differential plasticity of hippocampal and amygdalar neuronal networks are rare. We previously generated ataxin-2 (Atxn2) knockout mice and demonstrated that these animals lacked obvious anatomical abnormalities of the CNS, but showed marked obesity and reduced fertility. We now(More)
Upper extremity motor function was quantitatively assessed in 6 children (age 7-11 years) treated with antiepileptic drugs for benign focal epilepsies of childhood and compared with that of 30 age-matched normal children. Both motor performance and adaptation to perturbing mechanical constraints imposed by a robotic device were significantly impaired in(More)
AIMS To evaluate the acute effects of the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone on rat hippocampal synaptic plasticity. METHODS Electrophysiological field potential recordings were used to measure basal synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in rat coronal hippocampal slices. Synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced by high-frequency(More)
Worsening memory is a common complaint in the elderly and predictably causes affected individuals and their families to wonder whether the underlying cause is Alzheimer disease, the most common form of dementia. Alzheimer disease is a devastating illness that unavoidably leads to a complete loss of independence and, as a(More)
Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (ApoE4) has been associated with increased risk of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) and of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to AD. But the underlying mechanism of ApoE4 affecting brain atrophy and cognition is not fully understood. We investigated the effect of ApoE4 on amyloid beta (Aβ) protein burden and its(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophin. However, its role in human Alzheimer's disease (AD) is largely unknown. We examined PACAP expression in postmortem human AD and triple transgenic mouse (3xTG, Psen1/APPSwe/TauP301L) brains. We established an in vitro model of primary neuronal cell culture to study the protective(More)
We have reported earlier that pertussis toxin (PTx) attenuates the motor deficits in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for human multiple sclerosis. PTx protects neurons from inflammatory insults. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is also neuroprotective. However, the effect of PTx on VEGF has never been studied. We(More)