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Low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons in natural hydrothermal fluids have been attributed to abiogenic production by Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) reactions, although clear evidence for such a process has been elusive. Here, we present concentration, and stable and radiocarbon isotope, data from hydrocarbons dissolved in hydrogen-rich fluids venting at the(More)
The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from <40 degrees to 90 degrees C at pH 9 to 11, and carbonate(More)
Within the endemic invertebrate faunas of hydrothermal vents, five biogeographic provinces are recognized. Invertebrates at two Indian Ocean vent fields (Kairei and Edmond) belong to a sixth province, despite ecological settings and invertebrate-bacterial symbioses similar to those of both western Pacific and Atlantic vents. Most organisms found at these(More)
Seafloor diking-eruptive events represent the irreducible, quantum events of upper oceanic crustal accretion. They record events by which a large portion of the oceanic crust has formed through geological history. Since 1993, the U.S. Navy's real-time Sound Surveillance System has allowed location of ongoing acoustic signatures of dike emplacement and(More)
The Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge is host to one of the most vigorous hydrothermal areas found on the global mid-ocean-ridge system, with five separate vent fields located within 15 km along the top of the ridge segment. Over the past decade, the largest of these vent fields, the 'Main Endeavour Field', has exhibited a constant spatial(More)
The Arctic mid-ocean Ridge (AmoR) represents one of the most slow-spreading ridge systems on Earth. Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting, as well as the provenance of vent fauna at this northern and insular termination of the global ridge system, have been unsuccessful. Here, we report the first discovery of(More)
Evidence is growing that hydrothermal venting occurs not only along mid-ocean ridges but also on old regions of the oceanic crust away from spreading centres. Here we report the discovery of an extensive hydrothermal field at 30 degrees N near the eastern intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Atlantis fracture zone. The vent field--named 'Lost(More)
Hydrothermal vents along mid-ocean systems host unique, highly productive biological communities, based on microbial chemoautotrophy, that thrive on the sulphur, metals, nitrogen and carbon emitted from the vents into the deep ocean. Geochemical studies of vents have centred on analyses of high-temperature, focused hydrothermal vents, which exhibit very(More)
Seafloor hydrothermal systems are known to respond to seismic and magmatic activity along mid-ocean ridges, often resulting in locally positive changes in hydrothermal discharge rate, temperature and microbial activity, and shifts in composition occurring at the time of earthquake swarms and axial crustal dike injections. Corresponding regional effects have(More)
For over 25 years, hydrothermal vent communities discovered at the Galápagos Rift near 86°W [e.g., Corliss et al., 1979] have provided the foundation of deep-sea vent biology as their study has led to fundamental discoveries of chemoautorophy and novel symbioses in the deep sea [e.g., Cavanaugh et al., 1981]. Since 1979, numerous physiological and(More)