Learn More
Previous reports about the nucleotide receptor P2X(7), which exhibits ion channel and pore-forming activity and is known to promote IL-1beta processing, have centered largely on its role in macrophage function, whereas its participation in monocyte activity has been unclear. However, because extracellular ATP has been shown to affect monocytes with respect(More)
Type I interferons (IFNs) are known to mediate viral control, and also promote survival and expansion of virus-specific CD8+ T cells. However, it is unclear whether signaling cascades involved in eliciting these diverse cellular effects are also distinct. One of the best-characterized anti-viral signaling mechanisms of Type I IFNs is mediated by the(More)
The turkey interferon (TkIFN) gene encodes a signal peptide and a mature protein of 30 and 162 amino acids, respectively. TkIFN mRNA expression was induced by reoviral double-stranded RNA in fibroblasts. The recombinant TkIFN protein possessed species-specific antiviral activity and in synergy with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced bone marrow macrophages to(More)
Influenza A viruses cause recurrent outbreaks at local or global scale with potentially severe consequences for human health and the global economy. Recently, a new strain of influenza A virus was detected that causes disease in and transmits among humans, probably owing to little or no pre-existing immunity to the new strain. On 11 June 2009 the World(More)
The 'Spanish' influenza pandemic of 1918-19 was the most devastating outbreak of infectious disease in recorded history. At least 20 million people died from their illness, which was characterized by an unusually severe and rapid clinical course. The complete sequencing of several genes of the 1918 influenza virus has made it possible to study the functions(More)
T-cell recruitment into the brain is critical in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases of the CNS. We use intracerebral antigen microinjection and tetramer technology to track antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells in the CNS and to clarify the contribution of antigen deposition or traumatic injury to the accumulation of T-cells in the brain. We demonstrate that,(More)
During a T cell response, the effector CTL pool contains two cellular subsets: short-lived effector cells (SLECs), a majority of which are destined for apoptosis, and the memory precursor effector cells, which differentiate into memory cells. Understanding the mechanisms that govern the differentiation of memory CD8 T cells is of fundamental importance in(More)
The clonal expansion, differentiation into effectors and establishing an immunological memory are crucial components of the adaptive immune response. Following the initial encounter with a pathogen, clonal CD8 T cell expansion yields at least two distinct populations of effector cells, short-lived effector cells (SLECs) and memory precursor effector cells(More)
In addition to its established role in innate immune mechanisms, complement component C3 is also of critical importance in B cell activation and T cell-dependent Ab responses. In this study, we have examined the requirement for C3 in the generation of primary CD8 T cell responses to an acute systemic viral infection. We compared Ag-specific CD8 T cell(More)
BACKGROUND Despite high HIV prevalence rates among most-at-risk groups, utilisation of HIV testing, treatment and care services was relatively low in Karnataka prior to 2008. The authors aimed to understand the barriers to and identify potential solutions for improving HIV service utilisation. METHODS Focus group discussions were carried out among(More)