Martyn Thomas Smith

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Benzene is known to have toxic effects on the blood and bone marrow, but its impact at levels below the U.S. occupational standard of 1 part per million (ppm) remains uncertain. In a study of 250 workers exposed to benzene, white blood cell and platelet counts were significantly lower than in 140 controls, even for exposure below 1 ppm in air. Progenitor(More)
Reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (methyleneTHF), a donor for methylating dUMP to dTMP in DNA synthesis, to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (methylTHF), the primary methyl donor for methionine synthesis, is catalyzed by 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). A common 677 C --> T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene results in thermolability and(More)
The FAS (TNFRSF6/CD95/APO-1) gene is silenced in many tumor types, resulting in an inability to respond to proapoptotic signals. The FAS promoter is polymorphic, including a G to A substitution at -1377 bp and an A to G substitution at -670 bp, which occur within SP1 and signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 transcription factor binding(More)
Reporting of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMDs) to population-based cancer registries in the United States was initiated in 2001. In this first analysis of data from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR), encompassing 82% of the US population, we evaluated trends in MDS and CMD(More)
Ingestion of arsenic, both from water supplies and medicinal preparations, is known to cause skin cancer. The evidence assessed here indicates that arsenic can also cause liver, lung, kidney, and bladder cancer and that the population cancer risks due to arsenic in U.S. water supplies may be comparable to those from environmental tobacco smoke and radon in(More)
Benzene is a well-established hematotoxin. However, reports of its effects on specific blood cells have been somewhat inconsistent and the relative toxicity of benzene metabolites on peripheral blood cells in humans has not been evaluated. We compared hematologic outcomes in a cross-sectional study of 44 workers heavily exposed to benzene (median: 31 parts(More)
BACKGROUND Common genetic variants in immune and inflammatory response genes can affect the risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We aimed to test this hypothesis using previously unpublished data from eight European, Canadian, and US case-control studies of the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). METHODS We selected 12(More)
Formaldehyde is an economically important chemical, to which more than 2 million U.S. workers are occupationally exposed. Substantially more people are exposed to formaldehyde environmentally, as it is generated by automobile engines, is a component of tobacco smoke and is released from household products, including furniture, particleboard, plywood, and(More)
Formaldehyde, an economically important chemical, is classified as a human carcinogen that causes nasopharyngeal cancer and probably leukemia. As China is the largest producer and consumer of formaldehyde in the world, the Chinese population is potentially at increased risk for cancer and other associated health effects. In this paper we review formaldehyde(More)
OBJECTIVES Animal inhalation studies and theoretical models suggest that the pattern of formation of benzene metabolites changes as exposure to benzene increases. To determine if this occurs in humans, benzene metabolites in urine samples collected as part of a cross sectional study of occupationally exposed workers in Shanghai, China were measured. (More)