Martyn T. Cobourne

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The mammalian dentition is composed of serial groups of teeth, each with a distinctive crown and root morphology, highly adapted to its particular masticatory function. In the embryo, generation of individual teeth within the jaws relies upon interactions between ectoderm of the first branchial arch and the neural crest-derived ectomesenchymal cells that(More)
We show that removing the Shh signal tranducer Smoothened from skin epithelium secondarily results in excess Shh levels in the mesenchyme. Moreover, the phenotypes we observe reflect decreased epithelial Shh signaling, yet increased mesenchymal Shh signaling. For example, the latter contributes to exuberant hair follicle (HF) induction, while the former(More)
We present direct evidence of an activator-inhibitor system in the generation of the regularly spaced transverse ridges of the palate. We show that new ridges, called rugae, that are marked by stripes of expression of Shh (encoding Sonic hedgehog), appear at two growth zones where the space between previously laid rugae increases. However, inter-rugal(More)
Holoprosencephaly is a heterogeneous developmental malformation of the central nervous system characterized by impaired forebrain cleavage, midline facial anomalies and wide phenotypic variation. Indeed, microforms represent the mildest manifestation, associated with facial anomalies but an intact central nervous system. In many cases, perturbations in(More)
The purpose of this investigation was to undertake an objective and quantitative evaluation of how mandibular prominence influences perceived attractiveness. The mandibular prominence of an idealized profile image was altered in 2 mm increments from -16 to 12 mm, in order to represent retrusion and protrusion of the mandible, respectively. These images were(More)
The aim of this study was to compare the degree of discomfort experienced during the period of initial orthodontic tooth movement using Damon3 self-ligating and Synthesis conventional ligating pre-adjusted bracket systems. Sixty-two subjects were recruited from two centres (32 males and 30 females; mean age 16 years, 3 months) with lower incisor(More)
Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant or spontaneous disorder characterized by multiple cutaneous basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, skeletal anomalies and facial dysmorphology, including cleft lip and palate. Causative mutations for NBCCS occur in the PTCH1 gene on chromosome 9q22.3-q31, which encodes the(More)
The pituitary gland is formed by the juxtaposition of two tissues: neuroectoderm arising from the basal diencephalon, and oral epithelium, which invaginates towards the central nervous system from the roof of the mouth. The oral invagination that reaches the brain from the mouth is referred to as Rathke’s pouch, with the tip forming the adenohypophysis and(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this investigation was to undertake an objective and quantitative evaluation of how severity of asymmetries affecting the mandible and chin point influence perceived attractiveness. MATERIALS AND METHODS The mandible and chin point of idealized male and female frontal facial images were altered in 5-mm increments from 0 to 25 mm and(More)
The vertebrate Scube family consists of three independent members Scube1-3; which encode secreted cell surface-associated membrane glycoproteins that share a domain organization of at least five recognizable motifs and the ability to both homo- and heterodimerize. There is recent biochemical evidence to suggest that Scube2 is directly involved in Hedgehog(More)