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Viruses are the major pathogens of community-acquired (CA) acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children, but their role in healthcare-associated (HA) AGE is poorly understood. Children with AGE hospitalized at Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liverpool, UK, were enrolled over a 2-year period. AGE was classified as HA if diarrhea developed > or =48 hours after(More)
In a study of Campylobacter infection in northwestern England, 2003-2006, C. jejuni multilocus sequence type (ST)-45 was associated with early summer onset and was the most prevalent C. jejuni type in surface waters. ST-45 is likely more adapted to survival outside a host, making it a key driver of transmission between livestock, environmental, and human(More)
Microbiologic and epidemiologic data on 1,933 cases of human listeriosis reported in England and Wales from 1990 to 2004 were reviewed. A substantial increase in incidence occurred from 2001 to 2004. Ten clusters (60 cases), likely to represent common-source outbreaks, were detected. However, these clusters did not account for the upsurge in incidence,(More)
Detailed understanding of the epidemiology of Campylobacter is increasingly facilitated through use of universal and reproducible techniques for accurate strain differentiation and subtyping. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) enables discriminatory subtyping and grouping of isolate types into genetically related clonal complexes; it also has the advantage(More)
BACKGROUND Telehealth systems have a large potential for informing public health authorities in an early stage of outbreaks of communicable disease. Influenza and norovirus are common viruses that cause significant respiratory and gastrointestinal disease worldwide. Data about these viruses are not routinely mapped for surveillance purposes in the UK, so(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the cost effectiveness of influenza vaccination for healthy people aged 65-74 years living in the UK. People without risk factors for influenza (chronic heart, lung or renal disease, diabetic, immunosuppressed or those living in an institution) were identified from 20 general practitioner (GP) practices in Liverpool in(More)
This study uses multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate the epidemiology of Campylobacter coli in a continuous study of a population in Northwest England. All cases of Campylobacter identified in four Local Authorities (government administrative boundaries) between 2003 and 2006 were identified to species level and then typed, using MLST.(More)
We reviewed historical data from 2 smallpox outbreaks in Liverpool and Edinburgh during the early and middle years of the 20th century to assess their contribution to developing modern strategies for response to a deliberate release of smallpox virus. Reports contemporaneous to these outbreaks provide detail on the effectiveness of public health(More)
BACKGROUND In July 2013, a rotavirus vaccination program for 2- to 3-month-olds was introduced in the United Kingdom. We present an initial impact analysis of this new vaccine program using national syndromic surveillance systems. METHODS General practitioner (GP) in-hours, GP out-of-hours, and emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance systems were(More)
In January 2006, an outbreak of hepatitis A occurred in a socio-economically deprived area of Liverpool, in the United Kingdom (UK), where extensive community outbreaks of hepatitis had previously occurred. A total of nine cases were confirmed. Five of these were linked within a primary school. The outbreak initially occurred among a close social contact(More)