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Between 1996 and 2000, rates of cryptosporidiosis in North West England were significantly higher than overall in England and Wales, particularly during the first half of each year. In addition, during the second quarter of each year in this period, up to 40% of all cases recorded in England and Wales were from the North West Region. In 2001,(More)
Viruses are the major pathogens of community-acquired (CA) acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children, but their role in healthcare-associated (HA) AGE is poorly understood. Children with AGE hospitalized at Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liverpool, UK, were enrolled over a 2-year period. AGE was classified as HA if diarrhea developed > or =48 hours after(More)
This paper describes a collaborative effort among five New England medical schools to assess important clinical skills of fourth-year medical students graduating in the class of 1988; results are presented from the four schools that provided sufficient data. Faculty from each school developed 36 patient cases representing a variety of common ambulatory-care(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the reliability and validity of "standardized patients" to assess clinical performance of internal medicine residents. DESIGN Each resident spent 2 half-days interacting with 19 standardized patients (nonphysicians taught to portray patients in a reproducible fashion). Each resident was asked to obtain focused histories, perform(More)
This study assessed the contribution of immigration and deprivation to the changes in tuberculosis notifications in Liverpool over the last 20 yrs. Ethnic origin was retrospectively assigned to all named cases from 1974 to 1995. Average tuberculosis rates were calculated for the 33 council wards in Liverpool for 1981-1985 and 1991-1995. Multiple regression(More)
The University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, attempted to develop a standardized, performance-based test battery aimed directly at assessing the critical aspects of clinical competence required for graduation from medical school. The battery used a blend of standardized patient-based and written test materials and was designed to yield a(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether participation in an intensive domestic violence interclerkship (DVI) improved the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of two successive cohorts of students at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. METHOD The authors measured the knowledge, attitudes, and skills pertaining to domestic violence of third-year students in(More)
OBJECTIVES To identify sources and routes of infection for sporadic cases of campylobacter infection in the North West of England. METHODS Standard, structured questionnaires were used to gather epidemiological information from cases of campylobacter infection in the North West Region of England between 1997 and 1999. The strains of campylobacter isolated(More)
SARS has been called the first global epidemic of the 21st century and has been the cause of a massive and varied public health response in many countries of the world. This report describes observations made by two authors on a journey from Manchester in the United Kingdom to Chiang Mai in Thailand during the peak of global transmission. The public(More)