Martyn A Sharpe

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Disrupted energy metabolism, in particular reduced activity of cytochrome oxidase (EC 1.9.3.1), alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.2) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.1) have been reported in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain. beta-Amyloid is strongly implicated in Alzheimer's pathology and can be formed intracellularly in neurones. We have(More)
Beta-amyloid deposition and compromised energy metabolism both occur in vulnerable brain regions in Alzheimer's disease. It is not known whether beta-amyloid is the cause of impairment of energy metabolism, nor whether impaired energy metabolism is specific to neurons. Our results, using primary neuronal cultures, show that 24-h incubation with A(More)
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of neuritic plaques, containing activated microglia and β-amyloid peptides (Aβ). Fibrillar Aβ can activate microglia, resulting in production of toxic and inflammatory mediators like hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, and cytokines. We have recently found that microglial proliferation is regulated by(More)
Manganese-salen complexes (Mn-Salen), including EUK-8 [manganese N,N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine chloride] and EUK-134 [manganese 3-methoxy N,N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine chloride], have been reported to possess combined superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase mimetic functions. Because of this SOD/catalase mimicry, EUK-8 and EUK-134 have been(More)
Thimerosal generates ethylmercury in aqueous solution and is widely used as preservative. We have investigated the toxicology of Thimerosal in normal human astrocytes, paying particular attention to mitochondrial function and the generation of specific oxidants. We find that ethylmercury not only inhibits mitochondrial respiration leading to a drop in the(More)
The aerobic reactions of nitric oxide with cytochrome c were analysed. Nitric oxide (NO) reacts with ferrocytochrome c at a rate of 200 M-1 s-1 to form ferricytochrome c and nitroxyl anion (NO-). Ferricytochrome c was detected by optical spectroscopy; NO- was detected by trapping with metmyoglobin (Mb3+) to form the EPR-detectable Mb-nitrosyl complex, and(More)
Here we describe the substitution of fluorescently labeled ddUTP for dUTP in the TUNEL assay to allow quantification of generated fluorescence signals by epifluorescence microscopy. The capping of DNase type I 3'OH DNA ends using ddTUNEL was further combined with phosphatase treatment for detection of DNase type II 3'PO4 ends in the same sample using a(More)
Purified mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase catalyzes the conversion of peroxynitrite to nitric oxide (NO). This reaction is cyanide-sensitive, indicating that the binuclear heme a3/CuB center is the catalytic site. NO production causes a reversible inhibition of turnover, characterized by formation of the cytochrome a3 nitrosyl complex. In addition,(More)
Cultured rat and human astrocytes and rat neurones were shown to release reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, GSH oxidation was retarded by the concomitant release of a factor from the cells. One possibility is that this factor is extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD). In support of this, the factor was found to bind heparin, have a molecular mass(More)
Apoptosis may be initiated in neurons via mitochondrial release of the respiratory protein, cytochrome c. The mechanism of cytochrome c release has been studied extensively, but little is known about its dynamics. It has been claimed that release is all-or-none, however, this is not consistent with accumulating evidence of cytosolic mechanisms for(More)