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Disrupted energy metabolism, in particular reduced activity of cytochrome oxidase (EC 1.9.3.1), alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.2) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.1) have been reported in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain. beta-Amyloid is strongly implicated in Alzheimer's pathology and can be formed intracellularly in neurones. We have(More)
Beta-amyloid deposition and compromised energy metabolism both occur in vulnerable brain regions in Alzheimer's disease. It is not known whether beta-amyloid is the cause of impairment of energy metabolism, nor whether impaired energy metabolism is specific to neurons. Our results, using primary neuronal cultures, show that 24-h incubation with A(More)
Cytokine-stimulated astrocytes produce nitric oxide (NO), which, along with its metabolite peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), can inhibit components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We used astrocytes as a source of NO/ONOO(-) and monitored the effects on neurons in coculture. We previously demonstrated that astrocytic NO/ONOO(-) causes significant damage to(More)
Cultured rat and human astrocytes and rat neurones were shown to release reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, GSH oxidation was retarded by the concomitant release of a factor from the cells. One possibility is that this factor is extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD). In support of this, the factor was found to bind heparin, have a molecular mass(More)
Apoptosis may be initiated in neurons via mitochondrial release of the respiratory protein, cytochrome c. The mechanism of cytochrome c release has been studied extensively, but little is known about its dynamics. It has been claimed that release is all-or-none, however, this is not consistent with accumulating evidence of cytosolic mechanisms for(More)
We have examined the action of nitric oxide (NO) on the ability of Fenton's reagent (ferrous iron and hydrogen peroxide), to oxidize a number of organic optical probes. We found that NO is able to arrest the oxidation of organic compounds at concentrations of NO found in brain, in vivo. We present evidence that Fenton's reagent proceeds via a ferryl(More)
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