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The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor overactivity in two different experimental rat models of encephalopathy: subacute encephalopathy caused by severe hyperammonemia in portacaval-shunted rats (AI-PCS rats) and acute hepatic encephalopathy caused by complete liver ischemia (LIS rats). The effect(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The pathogenetic factors contributing to encephalopathy in portacaval shunted rats with hyperammonaemia were studied. METHODS Hyperammonaemia was induced by ammonium-acetate infusions in portacaval shunted rats (2.8 mmol.kg bw-1.h-1; AI-portacaval shunted rats) and in sham-portacaval shunted rats (6.5 mmol.kg bw-1.h-1; AI-NORM rats).(More)
The effects of hyperammonemia on brain function have been studied in three different experimental models in the rat: acute liver ischemia, urease-treated animals and methionine sulfoximine-treated animals. To quantify the development of encephalopathy, clinical grading and electroencephalographic spectral analysis were used as indicators. In all three(More)
Both increased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and decreased glutamatergic neurotransmission have been suggested relative to the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy. This proposed disturbance in neurotransmitter balance, however, is based mainly on brain tissue analysis. Because the approach of whole tissue analysis is of limited value with(More)
Glutamine synthase and carbamoylphosphate synthase show a strikingly heterogeneous and fully complementary distribution in the rat liver. In the human liver, however, there is a midlobular zone where both enzymes are absent. The diameter of the human liver lobule is approximately twice the size of the rat lobule. To investigate whether lobule size is a(More)
As a promising dopamine D2-receptor imaging agent for single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), [123I](S)-(-)-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6-methoxy-N [(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]benzamide ([123I]IBZM) has recently been synthesized in a modified way along with its precursor, S(-)BZM, and the stereoisomer R(+)BZM. The present study applied this new(More)
A major roadblock to the application of bioartificial livers is the need for a human liver cell line that displays a high and broad level of hepatic functionality. The human bipotent liver progenitor cell line HepaRG is a promising candidate in this respect, for its potential to differentiate into hepatocytes and bile duct cells. Metabolism and synthesis of(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) administration to human subjects or experimental animals induces changes in thyroid hormone metabolism resembling those in the sick euthyroid syndrome. Furthermore, the decrease in serum T3 during illness is significantly related to serum IL-6 concentrations. These findings suggest, but do not prove, a causal role for IL-6 in the(More)
Many enzymes are distributed heterogeneously within the liver lobule. The factors that play a determining role in the establishment and maintenance of these heterogeneous expression patterns have not yet been identified. To investigate whether the composition of the afferent hepatic blood plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the heterogeneity of gene(More)
Short- and long-term effects of intraperitoneally transplanted microcarrier attached liver cells (MAL) have been studied in two experimental models of severe liver insufficiency in the rat: subtotal hepatectomy (HX) and acute liver ischemia. Intraperitoneal transplantation of MAL immediately after subtotal hepatectomy resulted in a significantly lower(More)