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Primary hyperoxaluria Type 1 is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism, caused by a deficiency of the liver-specific enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase. The disorder results in overproduction and excessive urinary excretion of oxalate, causing recurrent urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. As glomerular filtration rate(More)
The overall probability of forming stones differs in various parts of the world: 1-5% in Asia, 5-9% in Europe, 13% in North America, 20% in Saudi Arabia. The composition of stones and their location in the urinary tract, bladder or kidneys may also significantly differ in different countries. Moreover, in the same region, the clinical and metabolic patterns(More)
BACKGROUND Recently published guidelines on the medical management of renal stone disease did not address relevant topics in the field of idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis, which are important also for clinical research. DESIGN A steering committee identified 27 questions, which were proposed to a faculty of 44 experts in nephrolithiasis and allied(More)
1. Dietary calcium restriction, an efficient practice in reducing urinary calcium excretion, has been reported to induce either an increase or no change in oxalate excretion, questioning its use in hypercalciuric stone-forming patients. In addition, calcium restriction has been previously demonstrated to induce other urinary changes which might influence(More)
Western diets rich in animal protein result in long-term acid loading that, despite corresponding increases in net renal acid excretion, may induce a chronic state of acidemia. This may have deleterious effects on both the kidney and bone, by increasing the risk of calcium stone in the former and leading to chemical dissolution of mineral alkaline salts in(More)
Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by a deficiency of alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), which is encoded by a single copy gene (AGXT). Molecular diagnosis was used in conjunction with clinical, biochemical, and enzymological data to evaluate genotype-phenotype correlation. Twenty-three unrelated,(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at high risk of nephrolithiasis (NL), but controversy still exists in terms of causes, including low urine output, hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hypocitraturia. Moreover, heterozygotes (H-CF), which may exhibit altered renal concentrating and diluting ability, have never studied so far.(More)
BACKGROUND Ascorbate supplementation for patients on regular dialysis treatment (RDT) is advised to obviate deficiency and improve epoetin response in those with functional iron deficiency. However, clear-cut safety concerns regarding hyperoxalemia are still poorly understood. This study tries to establish safety/efficacy profiles of ascorbate and oxalate(More)
Oxalate excretion was measured in healthy subjects and idiopathic calcium stone-formers on dietary regimens which differed in the type and amount of protein allowed; 24-h urine collections were obtained from 41 practising vegetarians and 40 normal persons on a free, mixed, "mediterranean" diet. Twenty idiopathic calcium stone-formers were also studied while(More)
Systematic screening using the SSCP technique followed by sequencing of bands with abnormal mobility derived from the AGXT exons of 15 unrelated Italian patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) allowed us to characterize both the mutant alleles in each individual. Eight new mutations were identified: C155del, C156ins, G244T, C252T, GAG408ins, G468A,(More)