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While the occurrence of yessotoxin (YTX) has been reported worldwide from Protoceratium reticulatum, the biogenetic origin of some YTX analogues is still unknown, thus raising an issue whether they are metabolites of YTX formed in mussels or true products of different dinoflagellate species. Findings reported herein suggest that P. reticulatum from the(More)
Massive blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata Fukuyo have recently occurred along the whole Italian coastlines, both Tyrrhenian and Adriatic, resulting sometimes in benthonic biocenosis sufferings and, occasionally, in human health problems. In this work, two strains of O. ovata collected in 2006 along the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coastlines(More)
The diarrhetic shellfish toxin composition in the digestive glands of mussels from the northern Adriatic sea was investigated. Along with known yessotoxins, identified by comparison of their chromatographic and spectral properties with those reported in the literature, we isolated a new analogue of yessotoxin,(More)
The contamination of shellfish with marine biotoxins derived from microalgae represents a serious problem for shellfish industries and public health. This study investigated the composition of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in the digestive glands of mussels from the Northern Adriatic Sea. Along with known yessotoxins, identified by comparison of their(More)
A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method is proposed for the sensitive, specific and direct detection of yessotoxin and its analogues, marine biotoxins which are associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) and which have been found in the North Adriatic sea since 1995. The LC-MS method provided a detection limit of 70 pg for(More)
The diarrhetic shellfish toxin composition in the digestive glands of mussels collected in June 2001 from the Northern Adriatic sea was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry. Along with known yessotoxins (1, 3-6), identified by comparison of their retention times and mass spectra with(More)
A research program was initiated in 1990 to carefully examine the toxin profiles in mussels from the northern Adriatic Sea. Since then, a number of polyether toxins have been isolated and characterized, some of which represent new additions to the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) class of biotoxins and seem to be peculiar to the Adriatic Sea. During our(More)
This study investigated the composition of diarrhoetic shellfish toxins in the hepatopancreas of mussels from the northern Adriatic Sea. The major toxins were shown to be yessotoxin, identified by its chromatographic properties and spectral data, and okadaic acid, detected both by fluorometric high-performance liquid chromatography and by comparison of its(More)
Inhalation anthrax is a deadly disease for which there is currently no effective treatment. Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) metalloproteinase is an integral component of the tripartite anthrax lethal toxin that is essential for the onset and progression of anthrax. We report here on a fragment-based approach that allowed us to develop inhibitors of(More)
This paper reports on the analysis of the toxin content from Palythoa tuberculosa and Palythoa toxica samples collected off of the Hawaiian coast. Our work, based on in-depth high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis along with extensive NMR study, led us to structurally characterize 42-hydroxy-palytoxin, a new palytoxin congener.(More)