Martine Inez Bakker

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Data on occurrence of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs] and dibenzofurans [PCDFs]), dioxin-like PCBs (polychlorinated non-ortho and mono-ortho biphenyls) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (as represented by the so-called indicator-PCBs: congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) in food products consumed in The Netherlands that were collected in(More)
The current study aims at estimating the dietary intake of PBDEs in the Netherlands and evaluating the resultant risk. Dietary intake was estimated using results of PBDE analyses in Dutch food products from 2003/2004 and consumption data of the third Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (1997/1998). Assuming that non-detects represent levels of half the(More)
Complete information regarding the use of personal care products (PCPs) by consumers is limited, but such information is crucial for realistic consumer exposure assessment. To fill this gap, a database was created with person-oriented information regarding usage patterns and circumstances of use for 32 different PCPs. Out of 2700 potential participants from(More)
After deposition to foliage, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may remain on the leaf surface, accumulate in the cuticular wax, or diffuse into the remaining interior of the plant. In a field study, the location of deposited PAHs in the leaves of two Plantago species was determined. To this aim, leaves of Plantago major and Plantago media were divided(More)
In this study, representative occurrence data for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in food were obtained and used to estimate dietary exposure of the Dutch population. Food composite samples were analyzed as well as single fish and vegetables samples. Total dioxin concentrations in animal products ranged from 0.05 pg TEQ/g product in poultry to 2.5 pg TEQ/g(More)
A simple steady-state model is derived from two kinetic one-compartment models for the disposition of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in the lactating cow. The model relates daily intake of AFB1 in feed of dairy cattle and the cow's lactation status to resulting concentrations of AFM1 in milk. Moreover, assuming a linear relationship between the(More)
Bioaccessibility is a measurement of a substance's solubility in the human gastro-intestinal system, and is often used in the risk assessment of soils. The present study was designed to determine the variability among laboratories using different methods to measure the bioaccessibility of 24 inorganic contaminants in one standardized soil sample, the(More)
The consumption of fish and nitrate-rich vegetables may lead to the formation of the genotoxic carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in the stomach. To assess human cancer risk associated with this formation, a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model was used to simulate NDMA formation in the stomach after a fish + vegetable meal. The experimental(More)
In 1998 and 1999, wheat contained high levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) in The Netherlands. Eighty percent of the 1-year-old children exceeded the TDI (20% exceeded 2TDI). Assuming a long-term intake a negative effect on body weight might be possible. In 1999 the Dutch government took several risk management measures. We performed a probabilistic exposure and(More)
Current practice of chemical risk assessment for consumer product ingredients still rarely exercises the aggregation of multi-source exposure. However, focusing on a single dominant source/pathway combination may lead to a significant underestimation of the risk for substances present in numerous consumer products, which often are used simultaneously.(More)