Martina Soldemo

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The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) functional spike has evolved multiple immune evasion strategies, and only a few broadly neutralizing determinants on the assembled spike are accessible to Abs. Serological studies, based upon Ab binding and neutralization activity in vitro, suggest that vaccination with current Env-based immunogens predominantly elicits(More)
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) isolated from chronically HIV-1 infected individuals reveal important information regarding how antibodies target conserved determinants of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike such as the primary receptor CD4 binding site (CD4bs). Many CD4bs-directed bNAbs use the same heavy (H) chain variable (V) gene segment,(More)
The envelope glycoproteins (Env) represent a critical component of a successful antibody-mediated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine. However, immunization with soluble Env was reported to induce short-lived antibody responses, suggesting that Env has unusual immunogenic properties. Here, we directly compared the magnitude and durability of(More)
Advances in HIV-1 vaccine clinical trials and preclinical research indicate that the virus envelope glycoproteins (Env) are likely to be an essential component of a prophylactic vaccine. Efficient Ag uptake and presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) is important for strong CD4(+) Th cell responses and the development of effective humoral immune responses. In(More)
Abs that bind the functional envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike are considered critical for a broadly effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine. The difficulty in eliciting such Abs by vaccination is partially attributed to the immunodominance of hydrophilic, surface-exposed variable protein regions of Env. However, little is known about the potential for(More)
Continued efforts to define the immunogenic properties of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) are needed to elicit effective antibody (Ab) responses by vaccination. HIV-1 is a highly neutralization-resistant virus due to conformational and glycan shielding of conserved Ab determinants on the virus spike. Elicitation of broadly neutralizing Abs that bind(More)
Catalytic reduction of CO2 by H2 for synthesis of CO,methanol and hydrocarbons: Challenges and opportunities " , Energy & Environmental Science, 9 (2016) 62. different types of catalysts for CO2 reduction by ethane through dry reforming and oxidative dehydrogenation " , Low pressure CO2 hydrogenation to methanol over gold nanoparticles activated on a(More)
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