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The widely expressed protein Fas is a member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor family which can trigger apoptosis. However, Fas surface expression does not necessarily render cells susceptible to Fas ligand-induced death signals, indicating that inhibitors of the apoptosis-signalling pathway must exist. Here we report the characterization of an(More)
Viruses have evolved many distinct strategies to avoid the host's apoptotic response. Here we describe a new family of viral inhibitors (v-FLIPs) which interfere with apoptosis signalled through death receptors and which are present in several gamma-herpesviruses (including Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated human herpesvirus-8), as well as in the tumorigenic(More)
Malignant melanoma accounts for most of the increasing mortality from skin cancer. Melanoma cells were found to express Fas (also called Apo-1 or CD95) ligand (FasL). In metastatic lesions, Fas-expressing T cell infiltrates were proximal to FasL+ tumor cells. In vitro, apoptosis of Fas-sensitive target cells occurred upon incubation with melanoma tumor(More)
Sera from 2,148 patients were tested with a third-generation microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA), a confirmatory assay, and a reverse transcription-PCR. Overall, 85.6% of reactivities were confirmed, 13.2% were shown to be unspecifically reactive, and 1.2% were indeterminate. The rate of confirmed MEIA reactivities clearly depended on the strength of(More)
For up to 20 to 40% of patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), the mode of transmission is still unknown. We demonstrate that tear fluid contains HCV RNA-carrying material with the properties of infectious virus and conclude that smear infection with tear fluid may play a role in HCV transmission.
We investigated subtype-dependent development of lamivudine resistance in hepatitis B virus (HBV) longitudinally in 26 consecutive patients (13 adw and 13 ayw carriers) during antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Lamivudine resistance developed in seven adw carriers and one ayw carrier. Risk of lamivudine resistance was significantly higher for adw(More)
Testing manual adherence and treatment discriminability and potency have become increasingly important to ensuring the internal validity of treatment studies [Moncher, F.J., & Prinz, R.J., (1991). Treatment fidelity in outcome studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 247-266.]. The objective of this study was therefore to implement the treatment integrity(More)
The temporal evolution of a water-sand interface driven by gravity is experimentally investigated. By means of a Fourier analysis of the evolving interface the growth rates are determined for the different modes appearing in the developing front. To model the observed behavior we apply the idea of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for two stratified fluids.(More)
The Decisional Balance Worksheet (DBW), an open-ended measure of motivation to change, may be used to record the pros and cons of smoking versus abstinence among treatment-seeking smokers. Recent findings indicated that the open-ended DBW could be quantified to validly reflect people's level of motivation to stop smoking (Collins, Eck, Torchalla, Schröter,(More)