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Genomic enhancers are important regulators of gene expression, but their identification is a challenge, and methods depend on indirect measures of activity. We developed a method termed STARR-seq to directly and quantitatively assess enhancer activity for millions of candidates from arbitrary sources of DNA, which enables screens across entire genomes. When(More)
The transcription factor c-Jun mediates several cellular processes, including proliferation and survival, and is upregulated in many carcinomas. Liver-specific inactivation of c-Jun at different stages of tumor development was used to study its role in chemically induced hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in mice. The requirement for c-jun was restricted to(More)
Gene transcription in animals involves the assembly of RNA polymerase II at core promoters and its cell-type-specific activation by enhancers that can be located more distally. However, how ubiquitous expression of housekeeping genes is achieved has been less clear. In particular, it is unknown whether ubiquitously active enhancers exist and how(More)
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