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Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by environmental xenobiotic toxic chemicals, for instance 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes such as embryogenesis, transformation, tumorigenesis and inflammation. But the identity of an endogenous ligand activating the AHR under physiological(More)
Monoallelic point mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase type 1 (IDH1) are an early and defining event in the development of a subgroup of gliomas and other types of tumour. They almost uniformly occur in the critical arginine residue (Arg 132) in the catalytic pocket, resulting in a neomorphic enzymatic function, production of the oncometabolite(More)
The human T cell response to the myelin basic protein (MBP) has been studied with respect to T cell receptor (TCR) usage, HLA class II restriction elements, and epitope specificity using a total of 215 long-term MBP-specific T cell lines (TCL) isolated from the peripheral blood of 13 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 10 healthy donors. In most(More)
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is the catalytic subunit of the Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that epigenetically silences gene transcription through histone H3 lysine trimethylation (H3K27me3). EZH2 has been implicated in stem cell maintenance and is overexpressed in hematological and solid malignancie`s including malignant glioma. EZH2 is(More)
Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitors have entered clinical trials based on their ability to restore anti-tumor immunity in preclinical studies. However, the mechanisms leading to constitutive expression of IDO in human tumors are largely unknown. Here we analyzed the pathways mediating constitutive IDO expression in human cancer. IDO-positive tumor(More)
The nucleotide sequence of a 1.25 kb BglII/EcoRI fragment from the 34 kb trimethoprim (Tp)-resistant plasmid pABU1 of Staphylococcus aureus 157/4696, isolated in Zürich, was determined. It contained the entire Tp-resistant dihydrofolate reductase gene, 197 bp of the thymidylate synthetase, 395 bp of a truncated gene and 111 bp of IS257R1. With the exception(More)
We have analyzed the T-cell-receptor repertoire expressed in the synovial fluid of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis by using an inverse polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA was isolated from Ficoll-purified mononuclear cells and converted into circularized double-stranded cDNA. Specific amplification of alpha- and beta-chain variable regions (V alpha and(More)
Neoangiogenesis is a pivotal therapeutic target in glioblastoma. Tumor monitoring requires imaging methods to assess treatment effects and disease progression. Until now mapping of the tumor vasculature has been difficult. We have developed a combined magnetic resonance and optical toolkit to study neoangiogenesis in glioma models. We use in vivo magnetic(More)
Tryptophan metabolism is a key process that shapes the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. The two rate-limiting enzymes that mediate tryptophan depletion, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), have moved into the focus of research and inhibitors targeting IDO and TDO have entered clinical trials. Local tryptophan(More)
Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark of acute inflammatory lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. This disruption may precede and facilitate the infiltration of encephalitogenic T cells. The signaling events that lead to this BBB disruption are incompletely understood but(More)