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The influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein are major targets for human virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Most of the CTL epitopes that have been identified so far are conserved. However, sequence variation in CTL epitopes of the NP has recently been demonstrated to be associated with escape from virus-specific CTLs. To(More)
In the present study, we examined the effect of the loss of the human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B*3501-restricted nucleoprotein (NP)(418-426) epitope on interferon (IFN)-gamma-production and lytic activity of the human cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in vitro. Extensive amino acid variation at T cell receptor contact residues of the NP(418-426) epitope(More)
It was recently shown that the use of an experimental subunit vaccine protected mice against infection with a human A/H3N2 influenza virus, but consequently affected the induction of heterosubtypic immunity to a highly pathogenic A/H5N1 influenza virus, which was otherwise induced by the A/H3N2 infection. As whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines are widely(More)
Plasma lipoprotein distribution and apolipoprotein concentrations, as well as kidney function and histopathology of heart, aorta, liver and kidney were investigated in 1-year-old Nagase analbuminemic rats (NAR) and control Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR). The NAR, particularly the females, were found to be severely hyperlipidemic. Plasma total cholesterol in(More)
In February 2013, zoonotic transmission of a novel influenza A virus of the H7N9 subtype was reported in China. Although at present no sustained human-to-human transmission has been reported, a pandemic outbreak of this H7N9 virus is feared. Since neutralizing antibodies to the hemagglutinin (HA) globular head domain of the virus are virtually absent in the(More)
Infection with seasonal influenza viruses induces a certain extent of protective immunity against potentially pandemic viruses of novel subtypes, also known as heterosubtypic immunity. Here we demonstrate that infection with a recent influenza A/H3N2 virus strain induces robust protection in ferrets against infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza(More)
Viruses can exploit a variety of strategies to evade immune surveillance by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), including the acquisition of mutations in CTL epitopes. Also for influenza A viruses a number of amino acid substitutions in the nucleoprotein (NP) have been associated with escape from CTL. However, other previously identified influenza A virus CTL(More)
Annual vaccination of healthy children >6 months of age against seasonal influenza has been recommended by public health authorities of some countries. However, currently used seasonal vaccines provide only limited protection against (potentially) pandemic influenza viruses. Furthermore, we recently hypothesized that annual vaccination may hamper the(More)
Infection with seasonal influenza A viruses induces immunity to potentially pandemic influenza A viruses of other subtypes (heterosubtypic immunity). We recently demonstrated that vaccination against seasonal influenza prevented the induction of heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A/H5N1 virus induced by infection with seasonal influenza in animal(More)
Influenza A (H1N1) viruses of swine origin were introduced into the human population in 2009 and caused a pandemic. The disease burden in the elderly was relatively low, which was attributed to the presence of cross-reacting serum antibodies in this age group, which were raised against seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses that circulated before 1957. It has(More)