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The influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein are major targets for human virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Most of the CTL epitopes that have been identified so far are conserved. However, sequence variation in CTL epitopes of the NP has recently been demonstrated to be associated with escape from virus-specific CTLs. To(More)
In the present study, we examined the effect of the loss of the human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B*3501-restricted nucleoprotein (NP)(418-426) epitope on interferon (IFN)-gamma-production and lytic activity of the human cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in vitro. Extensive amino acid variation at T cell receptor contact residues of the NP(418-426) epitope(More)
It was recently shown that the use of an experimental subunit vaccine protected mice against infection with a human A/H3N2 influenza virus, but consequently affected the induction of heterosubtypic immunity to a highly pathogenic A/H5N1 influenza virus, which was otherwise induced by the A/H3N2 infection. As whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines are widely(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of the H5N1 subtype continue to circulate in poultry, and zoonotic transmissions are reported frequently. Since a pandemic caused by these highly pathogenic viruses is still feared, there is interest in the development of influenza A/H5N1 virus vaccines that can protect humans against infection, preferably after a(More)
Plasma lipoprotein distribution and apolipoprotein concentrations, as well as kidney function and histopathology of heart, aorta, liver and kidney were investigated in 1-year-old Nagase analbuminemic rats (NAR) and control Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR). The NAR, particularly the females, were found to be severely hyperlipidemic. Plasma total cholesterol in(More)
Infection with seasonal influenza viruses induces a certain extent of protective immunity against potentially pandemic viruses of novel subtypes, also known as heterosubtypic immunity. Here we demonstrate that infection with a recent influenza A/H3N2 virus strain induces robust protection in ferrets against infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza(More)
Annual vaccination of healthy children >6 months of age against seasonal influenza has been recommended by public health authorities of some countries. However, currently used seasonal vaccines provide only limited protection against (potentially) pandemic influenza viruses. Furthermore, we recently hypothesized that annual vaccination may hamper the(More)
Infection with seasonal influenza A viruses induces immunity to potentially pandemic influenza A viruses of other subtypes (heterosubtypic immunity). We recently demonstrated that vaccination against seasonal influenza prevented the induction of heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A/H5N1 virus induced by infection with seasonal influenza in animal(More)
In February 2013, zoonotic transmission of a novel influenza A virus of the H7N9 subtype was reported in China. Although at present no sustained human-to-human transmission has been reported, a pandemic outbreak of this H7N9 virus is feared. Since neutralizing antibodies to the hemagglutinin (HA) globular head domain of the virus are virtually absent in the(More)
Annual vaccination against seasonal influenza viruses is recommended for certain individuals that have a high risk for complications resulting from infection with these viruses. Recently it was recommended in a number of countries including the USA to vaccinate all healthy children between 6 and 59 months of age as well. However, vaccination of(More)