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The divergence of lineages leading to extant squamate reptiles (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) and birds occurred about 275 million years ago. Birds, unlike squamates, have karyotypes that are typified by the presence of a number of very small chromosomes. Hence, a number of chromosome rearrangements might be expected between bird and squamate(More)
BACKGROUND The accumulation of repetitive sequences such as microsatellites during the differentiation of sex chromosomes has not been studied in most squamate reptiles (lizards, amphisbaenians and snakes), a group which has a large diversity of sex determining systems. It is known that the Bkm repeats containing tandem arrays of GATA tetranucleotides are(More)
Many poikilothermic vertebrate lineages, especially among amphibians and fishes, possess a rapid turnover of sex chromosomes, while in endotherms there is a notable stability of sex chromosomes. Reptiles in general exhibit variability in sex-determining systems; as typical poikilotherms, they might be expected to have a rapid turnover of sex chromosomes.(More)
Vertebrates possess diverse sex-determining systems, which differ in evolutionary stability among particular groups. It has been suggested that poikilotherms possess more frequent turnovers of sex chromosomes than homoiotherms, whose effective thermoregulation can prevent the emergence of the sex reversals induced by environmental temperature. Squamate(More)
Geckos (Gekkota) are a highly diversified group of lizards with an exceptional diversity in sex-determining systems. Despite this intriguing documented variability, data on sex determination in many lineages is still scarce. Here, we document the previously overlooked heteromorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in the thick-tailed gecko, Underwoodisaurus milii, a(More)
In contrast to mammals, birds exhibit a slow rate of chromosomal evolution. It is not clear whether high chromosome conservation is an evolutionary novelty of birds or was inherited from an earlier avian ancestor. The evolutionary conservatism of macrochromosomes between birds and turtles supports the latter possibility; however, the rate of chromosomal(More)
The eyelid geckos (family Eublepharidae) include both species with temperature-dependent sex determination and species where genotypic sex determination (GSD) was suggested based on the observation of equal sex ratios at several incubation temperatures. In this study, we present data on karyotypes and chromosomal characteristics in 12 species(More)
Amniotes possess variability in sex determining mechanisms, however, this diversity is still only partially known throughout the clade and sex determining systems still remain unknown even in such a popular and distinctive lineage as chameleons (Squamata: Acrodonta: Chamaeleonidae). Here, we present evidence for female heterogamety in this group. The(More)
One of the mechanisms contributing to the protection by breast-feeding of the newborn against enteric diseases is related to the ability of human milk oligosaccharides to prevent the attachment of pathogenic bacteria to the duodenual epithelium. Indeed, a variety of fucosylated oligosaccharides, specific to human milk, form part of the innate immune system.(More)
PA-IIL is a fucose-binding lectin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa that is closely related to the virulence factors of the bacterium. Previous structural studies have revealed a new carbohydrate-binding mode with direct involvement of two calcium ions (Mitchell E, Houles C, Sudakevitz D, Wimmerova M, Gautier C, Perez S, Wu AM, Gilboa-Garber N, Imberty A.(More)