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The lectins DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR can augment viral infection; however, the range of pathogens interacting with these attachment factors is incompletely defined. Here we show that DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR enhance infection mediated by the glycoprotein (GP) of Marburg virus (MARV) and the S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and might(More)
Platelets can engulf human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and a significant amount of HIV-1 in the blood of infected individuals is associated with these cells. However, it is unclear how platelets capture HIV-1 and whether platelet-associated virus remains infectious. DC-SIGN and other lectins contribute to capture of HIV-1 by dendritic cells (DCs)(More)
We have recently demonstrated that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) also mediates cellular entry of the newly discovered human coronavirus (hCoV) NL63. Here, we show that expression of DC-SIGN augments NL63 spike (S)-protein-driven infection of susceptible cells, while only(More)
Cellular attachment factors like the C-type lectins DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR (collectively referred to as DC-SIGN/R) can augment viral infection and might promote viral dissemination in and between hosts. The lectin LSECtin is encoded in the same chromosomal locus as DC-SIGN/R and is coexpressed with DC-SIGNR on sinusoidal endothelial cells in liver and(More)
The angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as a receptor for the severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Here we show that ACE2 expression on cell lines correlates with susceptibility to SARS-CoV S-driven infection, suggesting that ACE2 is a major receptor for SARS-CoV. The soluble ectodomain of ACE2(More)
The severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes severe pneumonia with a fatal outcome in approximately 10% of patients. SARS-CoV is not closely related to other coronaviruses but shares a similar genome organization. Entry of coronaviruses into target cells is mediated by the viral S protein. We functionally analyzed SARS-CoV(More)
Coronavirus (CoV) infection of humans is usually not associated with severe disease. However, discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV revealed that highly pathogenic human CoVs (HCoVs) can evolve. The identification and characterization of new HCoVs is, therefore, an important task. Recently, a HCoV termed NL63 was discovered in(More)
The processes of drug development require efficient strategies to produce the respective drug metabolites, which are often difficult to obtain. Biotransformations employing recombinant microorganisms as whole-cell biocatalysts have become an attractive alternative to the chemical syntheses of such metabolites. For the first time, the potential of four(More)
The human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is one of the major human drug metabolizing enzymes and acts preferably on substrates containing a basic nitrogen atom. Testosterone - just as other steroids - is an atypical substrate and only poorly metabolized by CYP2D6. The present study intended to investigate the influence of the two active site residues 216 and(More)