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Tuberculin skin test, QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB were performed in 338 children at risk for tuberculosis (TB), including 70 active TB cases. In children <5 years of age, QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube sensitivity was 73.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 57.5-89.1]; and T-SPOT.TB sensitivity was 59.3% (95% CI: 40.1-77.8); both were inferior to(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumococcal serotyping is usually performed by Quellung reaction, considered the gold standard test. However the method cannot be used on culture-negative samples. Molecular methods can be a useful alternative. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of Multiplex-sequential-PCR (MS-PCR) or Realtime-PCR on blood samples for diagnosis and(More)
The diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is currently based on culture methods, which lack sensitivity, especially after antibiotic therapy. Molecular methods have improved sensitivity and do not require viable bacteria; however, their use is complicated by reports of low specificity with some assays. The present study investigated the(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to use real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on blood samples to diagnose and serotype pneumococcal infection in a large cohort of Italian children hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS We conducted an observational study from April 2007 through June 2009 of children aged 0-16 years with a(More)
BACKGROUND Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in culture specimens in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) may be hampered by antibiotic treatment administered before hospital admission. Realtime polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays do not require viable bacteria and are therefore less influenced by antimicrobial therapy. It is not known how long(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK Since the introduction of the 7-valent vaccine, invasive pneumococcal disease have greatly decreased; however, changes in the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes have recently highlighted the need for vaccines with wider coverage. The aim of the work was to assess the potential serotype coverage of three pneumococcal(More)
The long term impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal colonization patterns remains unclear. Carriage and distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes as detected by RT-PCR were evaluated in a cohort of 1315 children. S. pneumoniae was identified in the nasopharyngeal swab of 734 children (55.8%); 488/734 (66.5%)(More)
A new 13-valent conjugated polysaccharide vaccine (PCV13) against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, which replaced the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) in the regional immunization programmes for newborns and children who started but not completed the 3 doses schedule of PCV7, is available in Italy since 2010. The opportunity of administering a further dose of(More)
The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) produced a significant herd protection in unvaccinated adult population mostly because of pneumococcus carriage decrease in vaccinated children. It is not known if the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine can give similar effect on adults. Aims of the work were to evaluate whether the 6 additional serotypes are(More)
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