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Inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism are widely thought to be distinct explanations for how altruism evolves. Here we show that they rely on the same underlying mechanism. We demonstrate this commonality by applying Hamilton's rule, normally associated with inclusive fitness, to two simple models of reciprocal altruism: one, an iterated prisoner's(More)
The Medical Quality Improvement Consortium data warehouse contains de-identified data on more than 3.6 million patients including their problem lists, test results, procedures and medication lists. This study uses reconstructability analysis, an information-theoretic data mining technique, on the MQIC data warehouse to empirically identify risk factors for(More)
Although the conditions under which altruistic behaviors evolve continue to be vigorously debated, there is general agreement that altruistic traits involving an absolute cost to altruists (strong altruism) cannot evolve when populations are structured with randomly formed groups. This conclusion implies that the evolution of such traits depends upon(More)
Although the prisoner's dilemma (PD) has been used extensively to study reciprocal altruism, here we show that the n-player prisoner's dilemma (NPD) is also central to two other prominent theories of the evolution of altruism: inclusive fitness and multilevel selection. An NPD model captures the essential factors for the evolution of altruism directly in(More)
reconstructed for dinosaurs are realistic, because other types of curve might fit better, and few data at their lower ends are currently available. A third crucial question is how birds and their immediate dinosaurian relatives became small. Erickson [1], we think, misstates our results [10,11] when he says: 'It was posited that selection favored reduced(More)
The building block hypothesis implies that genetic algorithm (GA) effectiveness is influenced by the relative location of epistatic genes on the chromosome. We demonstrate this effect in four experiments, where chromosomes with adjacent epistatic genes provide improved results over chromosomes with separated epistatic genes. We also show that(More)
There are a number of common human diseases for which the genetic component may include an epistatic interaction of multiple genes. Detecting these interactions with standard statistical tools is difficult because there may be an interaction effect, but minimal or no main effect. Reconstructability analysis (RA) uses Shannon's information theory to detect(More)
Let us know how access to this document benefits you. ABSTRACT For life to arise from non-life, a metabolism must emerge and maintain itself, distinct from its environment. One line of research seeking to understand this emergence has focused on models of autocatalytic reaction networks (ARNs) and the conditions that allow them to approximate metabolic(More)