Learn More
Inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism are widely thought to be distinct explanations for how altruism evolves. Here we show that they rely on the same underlying mechanism. We demonstrate this commonality by applying Hamilton's rule, normally associated with inclusive fitness, to two simple models of reciprocal altruism: one, an iterated prisoner's(More)
Software packages for Reconstructability Analysis (RA), as well as for related Log Linear modeling, generally provide a fixed set of functions. Such packages are suitable for end-users applying RA in various domains, but do not provide a platform for research into the RA methods themselves. A new software system, Occam3, is being developed which is intended(More)
The Medical Quality Improvement Consortium data warehouse contains de-identified data on more than 3.6 million patients including their problem lists, test results, procedures and medication lists. This study uses reconstructability analysis, an information-theoretic data mining technique, on the MQIC data warehouse to empirically identify risk factors for(More)
Although the conditions under which altruistic behaviors evolve continue to be vigorously debated, there is general agreement that altruistic traits involving an absolute cost to altruists (strong altruism) cannot evolve when populations are structured with randomly formed groups. This conclusion implies that the evolution of such traits depends upon(More)
Reconstructability analysis (RA) decomposes wholes, namely data in the form either of set-theoretic relations or multivariate probability distributions, into parts, namely relations or distributions involving subsets of variables. Data is modeled and compressed by variable-based decomposition, by more general state-based decomposition, or by the use of(More)
Table 1. Aspects of RA. (Prototypical RA task shown in bold.) 1. VARIABLE TYPE nominal (discrete) [binary/multi-valued] ordinal (discrete) quantitative (typically continuous) 2. SYSTEM TYPE directed system (has inputs & outputs) deterministic vs. non-deterministic neutral system (no input/output distinction) 3. DATA TYPE information theoretic RA(More)
Although the prisoner's dilemma (PD) has been used extensively to study reciprocal altruism, here we show that the n-player prisoner's dilemma (NPD) is also central to two other prominent theories of the evolution of altruism: inclusive fitness and multilevel selection. An NPD model captures the essential factors for the evolution of altruism directly in(More)
reconstructed for dinosaurs are realistic, because other types of curve might fit better, and few data at their lower ends are currently available. A third crucial question is how birds and their immediate dinosaurian relatives became small. Erickson [1], we think, misstates our results [10,11] when he says: 'It was posited that selection favored reduced(More)