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Mouse and human stem cells with features similar to those of embryonic stem cells have been derived from testicular cells. Although pluripotent stem cells have been obtained from defined germline stem cells (GSCs) of mouse neonatal testis, only multipotent stem cells have been obtained so far from defined cells of mouse adult testis. In this study we(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells with a pivotal role in antigen-specific immune responses. Here, we found that the helix-loop-helix transcription factor Id2 is up-regulated during DC development in vitro and crucial for the development of distinct DC subsets in vivo. Id2-/- mice lack Langerhans cells (LCs), the cutaneous contingent(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), in addition to their multilineage differentiation, exert immunomodulatory effects on immune cells, even dendritic cells (DCs). However, whether they influence the destiny of full mature DCs (maDCs) remains controversial. Here we report that MSCs vigorously promote proliferation of maDCs, significantly reduce their expression(More)
Reprogramming of somatic cells is a valuable tool to understand the mechanisms of regaining pluripotency and further opens up the possibility of generating patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. Reprogramming of mouse and human somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells, designated as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, has been possible with the(More)
The four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc can induce pluripotency in mouse and human fibroblasts. We previously described direct reprogramming of adult mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) by Oct4 and either Klf4 or c-Myc. NSCs endogenously express Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 as well as several intermediate reprogramming markers. Here we report that(More)
Human aging is associated with DNA methylation changes at specific sites in the genome. These epigenetic modifications may be used to track donor age for forensic analysis or to estimate biological age. We perform a comprehensive analysis of methylation profiles to narrow down 102 age-related CpG sites in blood. We demonstrate that most of these(More)
BACKGROUND AIMS Culture medium for mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is frequently supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS). FCS can induce xenogeneic immune reactions, transmit bovine pathogens and has a high lot-to-lot variability that hampers reproducibility of results. Several studies have demonstrated that pooled human platelet lysate (HPL) provides an(More)
Epigenetic modifications of cytosine residues in the DNA play a critical role for cellular differentiation and potentially also for aging. In mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from human bone marrow we have previously demonstrated age-associated methylation changes at specific CpG-sites of developmental genes. In continuation of this work, we have now(More)
We have developed a high-efficiency nucleic acid delivery system that uses receptor-mediated endocytosis to carry DNA macromolecules into cells. We accomplished this by conjugating the iron-transport protein transferrin to polycations that bind nucleic acids. Human transferrin, as well as the chicken homologue conalbumin, has been covalently linked to the(More)
Cell surface-bound receptors represent suitable entry sites for gene delivery into cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Here we have taken advantage of the mannose receptor that is highly expressed on antigen-presenting dendritic cells for targeted gene transfer by employing mannosylpolyethylenimine (ManPEI) conjugates. Several ManPEI conjugates were(More)