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Reprogramming of somatic cells is a valuable tool to understand the mechanisms of regaining pluripotency and further opens up the possibility of generating patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. Reprogramming of mouse and human somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells, designated as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, has been possible with the(More)
The four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc can induce pluripotency in mouse and human fibroblasts. We previously described direct reprogramming of adult mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) by Oct4 and either Klf4 or c-Myc. NSCs endogenously express Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 as well as several intermediate reprogramming markers. Here we report that(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells with a pivotal role in antigen-specific immune responses. Here, we found that the helix-loop-helix transcription factor Id2 is up-regulated during DC development in vitro and crucial for the development of distinct DC subsets in vivo. Id2-/- mice lack Langerhans cells (LCs), the cutaneous contingent(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), in addition to their multilineage differentiation, exert immunomodulatory effects on immune cells, even dendritic cells (DCs). However, whether they influence the destiny of full mature DCs (maDCs) remains controversial. Here we report that MSCs vigorously promote proliferation of maDCs, significantly reduce their expression(More)
Mouse and human stem cells with features similar to those of embryonic stem cells have been derived from testicular cells. Although pluripotent stem cells have been obtained from defined germline stem cells (GSCs) of mouse neonatal testis, only multipotent stem cells have been obtained so far from defined cells of mouse adult testis. In this study we(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have to be culture expanded to gain relevant cell numbers for therapeutic applications. However, within 2-3 months the proliferation rate of MSCs decays until they ultimately reach a senescent state. This is accompanied by enlarged morphology, reduced expression of surface markers, and decreased differentiation potential. So(More)
Human aging is associated with DNA methylation changes at specific sites in the genome. These epigenetic modifications may be used to track donor age for forensic analysis or to estimate biological age. We perform a comprehensive analysis of methylation profiles to narrow down 102 age-related CpG sites in blood. We demonstrate that most of these(More)
Constitutive nuclear nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activity is observed in a variety of hematopoietic and solid tumors. Given the distinctive role of constitutive NF-kappaB for Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cell viability, we performed molecular profiling in two Hodgkin's disease (HD) cell lines to identify NF-kappaB target genes. We recognized 45 genes(More)
Immunoglobulin-like transcripts (ILT) represent novel immunoglobulin superfamily receptors that are expressed in myeloid, lymphoid and dendritic cells (DC). Here, we studied by gene expression profiling with DNA microarrays ILT expression in different DC subsets, including plasmacytoid DC (PDC), monocyte-derived DC (Mo-DC) and DC obtained by in vitro(More)
We have developed a high-efficiency nucleic acid delivery system that uses receptor-mediated endocytosis to carry DNA macromolecules into cells. We accomplished this by conjugating the iron-transport protein transferrin to polycations that bind nucleic acids. Human transferrin, as well as the chicken homologue conalbumin, has been covalently linked to the(More)