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Phyllosilicates, a class of hydrous mineral first definitively identified on Mars by the OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, L'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activitié) instrument, preserve a record of the interaction of water with rocks on Mars. Global mapping showed that phyllosilicates are widespread but are apparently restricted to ancient terrains and a(More)
The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has investigated the landing site in Eagle crater and the nearby plains within Meridiani Planum. The soils consist of fine-grained basaltic sand and a surface lag of hematite-rich spherules, spherule fragments, and other granules. Wind ripples are common. Underlying the thin soil layer, and exposed within small impact(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections and the risk factors for these infections, identify the predominant infecting organisms, and evaluate the relationship between ICU-acquired infection and mortality. DESIGN A 1-day point-prevalence study. SETTING Intensive care units in 17 countries in Western Europe,(More)
The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and its Athena science payload have been used to investigate a landing site in Gusev crater. Gusev is hypothesized to be the site of a former lake, but no clear evidence for lacustrine sedimentation has been found to date. Instead, the dominant lithology is basalt, and the dominant geologic processes are impact events and(More)
To further delineate indications for noninvasive pressure support ventilation (NIPSV), we proposed this noninvasive technique as an alternative to endotracheal intubation in 17 consecutive patients with acute respiratory failure from various causes. Eight patients (47 percent) were successfully ventilated with NIPSV, while in 9 (53 percent), NIPSV failed.(More)
BACKGROUND Selective decontamination of the digestive tract with topical nonabsorbable antibiotics has been reported to prevent nosocomial infections in patients receiving mechanical ventilation, and the procedure is used widely in Europe. However, it is unclear whether selective decontamination improves survival. METHODS We conducted a randomized,(More)
CC-chemokines recruit and activate macrophages and T lymphocytes, the major components of inflammatory infiltrates in fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). To analyse the role of CC-chemokines in the pathogenesis of FHF, this study examined serum levels and intrahepatic expression of MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES in the livers and sera of patients(More)
Procedures for the analysis of free alpha-keto acids in human fluids (i.e. plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, etc.) as well as for studying the dynamic free alpha-keto acid pools in differentiated tissues and organ cells have been the subject of growing clinical interest in the study of metabolic regulatory and pathophysiological phenomena. Due to the high(More)
The Mars Express Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) hyperspectral image data covering eastern Terra Meridiani indicate the ubiquitous presence of molecular water in etched terrain materials that disconformably overlie heavily cratered terrains and underlie the hematite-bearing plains explored by the Opportunity rover.(More)
BACKGROUND Optimal management of patients who are clinically suspected of having ventilator-associated pneumonia remains open to debate. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect on clinical outcome and antibiotic use of two strategies to diagnose ventilator-associated pneumonia and select initial treatment for this condition. DESIGN Multicenter, randomized,(More)