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This year marks the 20th anniversary of functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging (fNIRS/fNIRI). As the vast majority of commercial instruments developed until now are based on continuous wave technology, the aim of this publication is to review the current state of instrumentation and methodology of continuous wave fNIRI. For this purpose we(More)
This review celebrates the 30th anniversary of the first in vivo near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (NIRS) publication, which was authored by Professor Frans Jobsis. At first, NIRS was utilized to experimentally and clinically investigate cerebral oxygenation. Later it was applied to study muscle oxidative metabolism. Since 1993, the discovery that the(More)
We examined the allocation of attention during the preparation of sequences of manual pointing movements in a dual task paradigm. As the primary task, the participants had to perform a sequence of two or three reaching movements to targets arranged on a clock face. The secondary task was a 2AFC discrimination task in which a discrimination target (digital(More)
OBJECTIVE Myotonic dystrophy type 1 and 2 (DM1/DM2) are multisystemic diseases with common cognitive deficits beside the cardinal muscular symptoms. We performed a comprehensive analysis of cerebral abnormalities to compare the neuropsychological defects with findings in different imaging methods in the same cohort of patients. METHODS Neuropsychological(More)
The basic parameters for physiological measurements provided by near-infrared spectroscopy are the local absorption and scattering coefficients. For the adult human head, they have been difficult to measure noninvasively because of the layered structure of the head. The results of measurements of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients through the(More)
Neurovascular coupling is the generic term for changes in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)), cerebral blood flow, and cerebral blood volume related to brain activity. The goal of this paper is to better understand the effects of neurovascular coupling in the visual and motor cortices using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy. Maps of(More)
OBJECTIVE Erythropoietin has been shown to be protective against hypoxic-ischemic and inflammatory injuries in cell culture, animal models of brain injury, and clinical trials of adult humans. The rationale for our study was that early administration of high-dose recombinant human erythropoietin may reduce perinatal brain injury (intraventricular hemorrhage(More)
Martin Wolf, chief economics commentator at the Financial Times, is a brilliant journalist and an able economist. Why Globalization Works is an excellent example of the author’s capacity for examination and analysis. The book is based on a series of articles on globalization that originally appeared in the FT, and on his Hayek Memorial Lecture to the(More)
The impact of daily social maternal stress on reproduction parameters was studied in F0 and F1 generation female Long-Evans rats. Chronic maternal stress was induced in pregnant females (F0 females) by 2 h social confrontation with a dominant female throughout pregnancy. Social stress of F0 females was associated with lower maternal body mass investment in(More)
Millisecond changes in the optical properties of the human brain during stimulation were detected in five volunteers using noninvasive frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy. During a motor stimulation task we found highly significant signals, which were directly related to neuronal activity and exhibited much more localized patterns than the slow(More)